40 notecards = 10 pages (4 cards per page)
A single molecule which can be bonded together to other monomers to
form larger molecules - polymers.
A larger molecule made by bonding of individual molecules (monomers)
Reaction that forms a covalent bond formed between 2 molecules by the removing a molecule of water.
Reaction that breaks covalent bonds by adding a molecule of water.
Large molecules made up of smaller organic molecules.
One of the 4 major classes of large organic molecules which provides
energy for the cell.
1 molecule of sugar. The monomer or building block of the polymer carbohydrate. A type of simple carbohydrate.
2 molecules of sugar bonded together. A type of simple carbohydrate.
Many sugars bonded together. Also known as complex carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates with only 1 (monosaccharide) or 2 (disaccharide) sugar molecules.
Carbohydrates with with 3 or more sugar molecules bonded together (polysaccharide).
A complex, highly branched polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) that
is formed from glucose subunits
A complex polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) that is formed from
An unbranched polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) formed from
One of the 4 major classes of large organic molecules. Usually made
up of fatty acid chains and glycerol.
Fatty acid chains with single bonds between each carbon atom. Solid at room temperature.
Fatty acid chain that contains double bonds between some carbon atoms which cause a bent shape in chain. Liquid at room temperature.
Type of lipid that makes up cell membranes. Has a polar hydrophilic phosphate head and 2 nonpolar hydrophobic fatty acid chains.
Water hating; not soluble (does not dissolve) in water because it is not polar.
Water loving; soluble (dissolves) in water because it is polar.
Type of lipid that is used as messengers throughout the body. Cholesterol and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) are examples.
Type of lipid that has nonpolar chains. Forms a protective waterproof coating.
One of the 4 major classes of large organic molecules. Made up of
Monomers or building block of proteins. There are 23 different amino acids.
Parts of an Amino Acid
Building blocks of proteins
Many amino acids bonded together in a chain.
Type of bond between amino acids to form polypeptide. Formed from dehydration reaction.
A substance present during a chemical reaction that speeds up the reaction but it not used up or changed during the reaction. An enzyme is a catalyst.
A protein that is a catalyst for chemical reactions in organisms; it increases the rate of reaction without being used up or changed.
A molecule on which an enzyme acts. Fits into the active site of the enzyme.
The place on an enzyme where the substrate attaches and where the reaction occurs. It fits the substrate like a lock and key.
The amount of energy needed to be input so a reaction can occur. Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy.
Conditions that affect enzyme activity
1. Temperature - enzyme activity goes up until the protein denatures
How fast or slow a reaction takes.
The amount of a particular substance in another substance.
One of the 4 major classes of large organic molecules which is the genetic material of living things. Stores and transmits the information necessary for the processes of life. Made up of nucleotides bonded together.
The nucleic acid that is the genetic information found in every cell.
Contains instructions to build proteins.
The nucleic acid that uses the instructions stored in DNA to build
The monomer of nucleic acids.
Three parts of a Nucleotide
A nucleotide is made up of: