88 notecards = 22 pages (4 cards per page)
4) All of the following parts of the GI tract aid in the digestion of fiber, except:
4) The process of converting protein to glucose is called:
4) Adolescents who drink about two cans of sugar-sweetened soft drinks daily consume ________ more kcalories a day than teens who don't.
4) Which of the following statements about diabetes is true?
b. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce insulin.
4)Harmful effects of excessive fiber intake may include all of the following except:
4) ________ is the sweetest of the sugars.
4) When blood glucose levels fall, which hormone is secreted by the pancreas to stimulate the liver to break down its glycogen?
Which sugar can partially be absorbed in the mouth?
4) ________ contributes about half of the added sugars in the U.S. food supply and accounts for about 10 percent of the average energy intake in the United States.
4) Some studies have shown that selecting foods with a low glycemic index may improve all of the following, except:
b. colon cancer risk
4) Which of the following items contains the most lactose?
e. 1 cup of ice cream
4) Which of the following protein foods also provides a significant amount of carbohydrate to the diet?
4) Which of the following artificial sweeteners contains a warning for those with PKU?
4) Diets rich in fiber may provide all of the following health benefits, except:
e. prevention or alleviation of ulcers
4) Which location along the GI tract is responsible for most of the work of carbohydrate digestion?
c. small intestine
4) When blood glucose falls, the liver cells break down glycogen through ________ reactions into single molecules of glucose and release them into the bloodstream.
4) Which of the following carbohydrates is not a monosaccharide?
4) The DRI recommendation for fiber intake is:
25-35 grams per day
4) ________ is a polysaccharide, but not a dietary source of carbohydrate.
4) By following the USDA Food Pattern and making careful food selections, a typical adult can obtain all the needed nutrients within an allowance of about ________ kcalories.
4) Which of the following food items is not a source of soluble fiber?
c. brussels sprouts
4) Which of the following statements regarding lactose intolerance is false?
b. Total elimination of milk products is necessary for those who are lactose intolerant.
4) Which of the following statements regarding glucose is incorrect?
d. Glucose is one of the two sugars in every disaccharide except maltose.
4) All of the following locations in the body store glycogen, except:
4) Which of the following beverages may be helpful in protecting against dental caries?
4) Which of the following is an herbal product that has recently been granted the status of "generally recognized as safe" and will be used as an alternative sweetener in the United States?
4) During which period in life is lactase activity the greatest?
4) Which of the following monosaccharide combinations makes up the disaccharide lactose?
b. glucose + galactose
5) Which of the following fatty acids is an essential fatty acid?
d. linoleic acid and linolenic acid only
5) Which of the following statements is false regarding lipid chemistry?
a. Fatty acids made up of 20 carbons are the most common in foods.
5) Which type of fat is most often implicated in raising LDL cholesterol levels?
5) In the body, trans-fatty acids that derive from hydrogenation behave more like ________ fats.
5) Fats help add all of the following to foods, except:
5) Chylomicrons bypass which organ at first as they travel through the lymphatic system after being released from the intestinal cells?
5) Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can:
b. help lower blood pressure
5) Which of the following is not a role of lipids in the body?
e. provision of materials for hair and nail creation
5) The excretion of bile in the feces helps to reduce ________ .
a. blood cholesterol
5) The key dietary principle for fat is ________ .
d. moderation (duh)
5) Which of the following elements is not part of various lipid compounds?
5) Which of the following is not a major source of trans fats?
5) ________ is the nation's number one killer of adults.
5) Which of the following is not a sterol compound found in the body?
5) Fatty acids differ from one another according to all of the following characteristics, except:
c. all of these choices
5) Food sources of the phospholipid, lecithin, include all of the following, except:
5) Which of the following oils is not a major source of monounsaturated fats?
d. corn oil
5) Monounsaturated fatty acids help to protect against heart disease by all of the following except:
a. increasing blood pressure
5) One pound of body fat is equal to ________ kcalories.
5) All of the following factors help raise HDL levels, except:
d. insoluble dietary fibers
5) The DRI and Dietary Guidelines recommend a diet that is low in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and provides ________ percent of the daily energy intake from fat.
5) The omega number indicates the ________ .
a. position of the first double bond in a fatty acid
5) Fats are ________ , meaning that they tend to separate from the watery fluids of the GI tract.
5) This lipoprotein is responsible for removing cholesterol from cells and carrying the cholesterol back to the liver for recycling or disposal.
c. high-density lipoproteins (HDL)
5) Which of the following is not a role of phospholipids?
a. acting as a cofactor for certain fat-soluble vitamins
5) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 fatty acids important for all of the following except:
c. prevention of cancer
5) Of the following locations, which one is the site of the greatest amount of fat digestion?
a. small intestine
5) Emulsifiers help mix fats with ________ .
5) Which of the following is an advantage of hydrogenation?
c. prolonged shelf life of fats
5) High ________ cholesterol is associated with a high risk of heart attack.
low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
6) Digestibility for most plant proteins is ________% .
6) During times of critical illness or protein malnutrition, plasma proteins leak out of the blood vessels into the tissues causing swelling. This swelling is called:
6) ________ is responsible for converting the inactive form of the enzyme pepsinogen to its active form, pepsin in the stomach.
e. Hydrochloric acid
6) Which of the following food categories provides no dietary protein?
6) The ________ structure of proteins involves the interaction between two or more polypeptides.
6) With the health condition phenylketonuria, tyrosine is a(n):
a. conditionally essential amino acid
6) A/an ________ bond connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain.
6) The area of study that examines how environmental factors influence gene expression without changing the DNA is known as ________ .
6) Which population does not require protein intake to exceed RDA values of 0.8g/kg of body weight?
b. older adults
6) To prevent upsetting the acid-base balance of the blood, the liver cells combine ammonia with ________ to make urea.
b. carbon dioxide
6) Which of the following groups is not in positive nitrogen balance useful?
a. older adults
6) High-protein diets have been implicated in all of the following chronic diseases, except:
6) Giant protein molecules manufactured by the immune system to aid in defending the body against disease are called ________ .
6) The most common sign of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is:
a. poor growth
6) When amino acids are deaminated, the two resulting products are ammonia and ________ .
6) Which of the following is not a function of enzymes?
a. to slow down reactions between substances to allow for greater absorption
6) An adequate supply of ________ and fats spare amino acids from being used for energy.
6) The quality of a food protein is determined by comparing its amino acid composition with the essential amino acid requirements of which population?
a. preschool children
6) An ounce of most protein foods delivers about ________ grams of protein.
6) In order for complementary proteins to function together, they must be consumed in:
d. the same day
6) How many amino acids are essential?
6) The RDA for protein is ________ percent of total food energy.
10 to 35
6) Which of the following is a role that proteins assist with in your body?
a. all of these
6) Which of the following elements makes proteins different from carbohydrates and fats?
6) The protein hemoglobin is responsible for carrying ________ in the body.
6) Which protein structure is determined by weak electrical attractions within the polypeptide chain?
a. secondary structure
6) Which of the following is not a digestive enzyme found in the small intestine?
6) The process of ________ is the making of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as amino acids.
6)Instructions for making every protein in a person's body are stored in the ________ .
6) Which of the following statements regarding protein absorption is incorrect?
b. Eating predigested proteins (amino acid supplements) helps keep the digestive system from being overworked with protein digestion.