90 notecards = 23 pages (4 cards per page)
According to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR), a diet that provides adequate energy and nutrients and reduces the risk of chronic disease is one that contains ________ to ________ percent kilocalories from carbohydrate.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are a set of standards created by experts from Canada and the United States for all of the following, except:
a. herbal supplements
When conducting research, a scientist will begin with a question or problem. Scientists then make an educated guess, also known as a/an ________ to systematically test.
One slice of bread with one tablespoon of peanut butter on it contains 16 grams carbohydrate, 7 grams protein, and 9 grams fat. What amount of energy (calories) can be derived from this food?
Which of the following statements regarding research is correct?
c. Randomization is a process used to ensure that the experimental and control groups are "equal".
Which of the following statements regarding correlations is incorrect?
a. Correlations demonstrate cause and effect relationships.
A consumer who purchases vegetables from local farmers to save the fuel and environmental costs of foods shipped from far way is making a food choice based on:
Which of the following is not a nutrient?
Which of the following statements regarding using nutrient recommendations is incorrect?
c. Recommendations are minimum requirements and should be adjusted for each individual.
Which of the following is not a part of a research article?
Which of the following statements regarding risk factors is incorrect?
a. The most prominent risk factor contributing to death in the United States is diet.
Which nutrient is inorganic?
he symptoms of iron deficiency including weakness, fatigue, and headaches, can be classified as a/an ________ deficiency.
The 16 minerals known to be essential in human nutrition are classified into which two categories?
a. major; trace
Which of the following is not a credible source of nutrition information?
a. Health and Fitness magazine
Dietary intakes of Americans are different than 40 years ago in all of the following ways, except:
a. Fewer snacks are consumed throughout the day.
The leading cause of death in the United States is ________ .
d. heart disease
Which of the following is not an epidemiological study?
c. clinical trials
Which of the following selections completes this statement correctly? The nutrient, ________ , provides ________ calories per gram.
e. fat 9
Which of the following is not an example of a functional food?
b. fish sticks
The Healthy People program sets priorities and guides policies for the Nation every ________ years.
Which of the following health care professionals has an educational background of approximately 60 class hours in nutrition or food science; a year's clinical internship or equivalent; has passed a national examination administered by the American Dietetic Association (ADA); and is required to maintain up-to-date knowledge by participating in continuing education activities?
b. dietitian, registered
When consumed in excess of body needs, which nutrient is converted into storage compounds such as body fat?
d. carbohydrates and proteins only
All of the following are examples of what could be included in a nutrition assessment of an individual, except:
a. educational background and childhood immunization records
Vitamins are organic nutrients that do not provide energy. What two classifications are used to describe vitamins?
water-soluble and fat-soluble
Information from the national nutrition surveys can be used for a number of purposes. Which of the followings is not one of those purposes?
e. Establishment of crop planting priorities among farmers.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are made up of several different values. Which of the following statements is correct regarding these values?
a. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the amount recommended to meet the need of most healthy people.
Which nutrient occupies the greatest percentage of your body composition?
Which of the following nutrients contains the element of nitrogen?
What is the number one reason people choose the foods they eat?
2. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include recommendations for all of the following, except:
b. emotion management as it relates to food
2. Which of the following basic diet-planning principles is concerned with the diet providing sufficient energy and enough of all the nutrients to meet the needs of healthy people?
2. Which of the following is not required to be present on the Nutrition Facts panel?
d. vitamin D
2. Which of the following minerals is required by the FDA to be listed on a Nutrition Facts Panel?
2. For ease in understanding serving size equivalents, visual representations, using everyday objects, have been readily used. Which of the following is an incorrect match between serving size equivalent and the everyday object?
d. 1 ounce cheese = a deck of cards
2. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans helps a person know what to eat to stay healthy. Which of the following statements is incorrect with regards to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
e. A healthy diet includes drinking alcohol in moderation.
2. If you were shopping for a loaf of bread and wanted to consume the bread with the greatest amount of whole grains, which of the following phrases would you look for to ensure your success?
b. whole wheat
2. According to the USDA Food Guide, which of the following is a whole grain choice from the grains subgroup?
2. The oils subgroup of the USDA Food Guide is known to contribute which of the following to your diet:
e. kcalories and vitamin E only
2. When grocery shopping, you purchase a box of your favorite ready-to-eat breakfast cereal. You notice the package says "May reduce the risk of heart disease" in big letters across the front of the box. This statement is a ________ claim.
2. If you wanted to find a food product that was a "good source of fiber", you would look for a product that contains ________ % Daily Value for fiber.
2. The difference between the kcalories needed to supply nutrients and those needed to maintain weight are known as the ________ .
c. discretionary kcalorie allowance
2. Which of the following basic diet-planning principles is concerned with consuming enough, but not too much, of each type of food?
2. Which vitamin are vegans at particular risk for deficiency and must rely on fortified sources (such as soy milk or breakfast cereals) and supplements?
d. vitamin B12
2. Which of the following statements is false regarding exchange lists?
d. Exchange lists sort foods primarily by their vitamin and mineral contents.
2. Which of the following is a nutrient that may be insufficient in a vegetarian diet?
2. According to the USDA Food Guide, all of the following constitutes a one-ounce protein equivalent, except:
d. 1 cup kidney beans
2. The USDA Food Guide assigns foods to five major subgroups and recommends daily amounts of food from each group. Which of the following is not a vegetable subgroup?
e. dark blue or purple vegetables such as eggplant, beets, and purple onions
2. When shopping in the meat department, choose fish, poultry, and lean cuts of beef and pork named ________ .
2. Good vegetarian sources of iron include all of the following, except:
2. Many times nutrients are added to food products through processing resulting in either a fortified or enriched product. Which of the following is the most highly fortified food on the market?
c. ready-to-eat breakfast cereals
2. A vegetarian who chooses to include milk, milk products, and eggs in their diet is referred to as a/an ________ .
2. The statements of "Keep food safe", "Select nutrient-dense foods and beverages", and "Look for foods that describe their vitamin and mineral contents as good source or high", correspond with which Dietary Guidelines?
c. building healthy eating patterns
2. All of the following diseases may be positively impacted by a primarily plant-based diet (i.e., meat free), except:
2. Which of the following is not considered a starchy vegetable?
c. black beans
2. In comparing the actual intakes to the recommended intakes for the food groups identified in the USDA Daily Food Guide and MyPlate, which of the following groups do Americans consume adequate amounts of as recommended by these two food guides?
a. protein foods
2. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing all of the following in one's diet, except:
e. monounsaturated fats
2. Many foods contain food labels while others do not. Which of the following foods need to have a food label?
e. menu items at restaurants with 20 or more locations
2. Which of the following statements is false regarding Daily Values (DVs)?
b. DVs compare key nutrients in a serving with the goals of a person consuming 2500 kcalories per day.
2. Which two subgroups of the USDA Food Guide do legumes belong?
d. vegetables and protein
3. The flavor savory is associated with:
b. monosodium glutamate
3. Which statement regarding irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incorrect?
c. Consuming large meals at regular intervals during the day may be an effective treatment in preventing IBS symptoms.
3. The body's constant effort to bring itself back to normal is known as the principle of ________ .
3. Heartburn can be caused by which of the following conditions?
a. all of these choices
3. Which of the following causes ulcers?
a. bacterial infections
3. Which GI tract hormone is secreted from the stomach wall in response to the presence of food in the stomach and resulting in hydrochloric acid being secreted into the stomach?
3. The routing of blood for the digestive system has a special feature. Which of the following is the correct path of blood flow for the digestive system taking into account the special feature?
d. heart to arteries to capillaries to hepatic portal vein to capillaries to hepatic vein to heart
3. Where does chemical digestion of carbohydrates begin in the GI tract?
3. After a mouthful of food has been chewed and swallowed, it is called a/an ________ .
3. Which of the following characteristics of your daily meals should be of greatest importance when considering that some food constituents interfere with nutrient absorption?
3. Which digestive secretion serves to emulsify fat so that enzymes can have access to break down the fat?
3. In which GI tract organs does the most absorption take place?
3. Which of the following types of nutrient absorption requires energy and occurs when nutrients (such as glucose and amino acids) move against a concentration gradient?
d. active transport
3. Which of the following foods is a common culprit for choking?
3. All of the following organs contribute secretions for the breakdown of food into nutrients, except:
d. large intestine
3. Gastric juice has a pH level most similar to which of the following fluids?
a. lemon juice
3. Where does digestion begin?
3. Which digestive organ is responsible for the absorption of water and minerals from the diet?
3. What is the correct order for the gastrointestinal tract?
mouth; esophagus; stomach; small intestine; large intestine; rectum; anus
3. Which of following is not a role of GI tract bacteria?
a. Regulation of blood pressure.
3. Which of the following is not one of the four basic taste sensations?
3. Which of the following sphincters is responsible for preventing reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus?
d. cardiac sphincter
3. The potential GI health benefits of probiotics include helping to alleviate all of the following, except:
3. ________ are living microorganisms that change the conditions and native bacterial colonies in the GI tract in ways that seem to benefit health.
3. Which of the following statements regarding nutrient transport is false?
d. Nutrients absorbed in the small intestine, whether released into the bloodstream or the lymph, pass through the liver first before distribution to the rest of the body.
3. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the small intestine that occurs in response to foods that contain ________ .
3. Which sphincter allows passage from the stomach to small intestine?
3. Peristalsis and sphincter muscles along the GI tract help keep things moving along. Which of the following factors can influence GI tract contractions?
b. all of these
3. Which organ of the GI tract has the strongest muscles?
3. The ________ is/are the body's major metabolic organ(s).