109 notecards = 28 pages (4 cards per page)
Loop of Henle
Structure most closely associated with granular cells
Medulla of the kidney
Is composed of simple squamous epithelium
Collecting duct cells
Proximal convoluted tubule cells
Filtrate at the site of these cells is about the same osmolarity as blood plasma
Cells that are the most active in reabsorbing the filtrate
Cells that reabsorb virtually all the nutrients
Cells that are most affected by ADH
Almost no water is absorbed in these cells
Proximal convoluted tubule
A) Site at which most of the tubular reabsorption occurs.
C) Site of filtrate formation.
B) Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.
D) Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.
A) loop of Henle
Urine passes through the ________.
B) pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?
B) a vasa recta
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.
B) increase in the production of ADH
The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
C) by a decrease in the blood pressure
Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?
D) eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
Which gland sits atop each kidney?
The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.
C) is drained by an efferent arteriole
The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________.
D) contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
Select the correct statement about the ureters.
C) The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.
B) stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.
A) Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________.
D) regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?
A) They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
A) The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
A) the stretching of the bladder wall
The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
C) renal fascia
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
C) hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
The macula densa cells respond to ________.
D) changes in solute content of the filtrate
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.
D) plasma protein
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
D) inhibits the release of ADH
The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
A) constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________.
B) diabetes insipidus
An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
D) 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
Select the correct statement about the nephrons.
A) The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
B) Net filtration would decrease.
Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
C) podocyte cells
Tubular reabsorption ________.
B) by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient
Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron?
D) They are extremely complex molecules.
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.
D) secondary active transport
Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle?
B) form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because ________.
C) the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood
Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?
D) Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.
B) glomerular hydrostatic pressure
If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________.
C) appear in the urine
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
B) impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?
D) by secreting sodium ions
In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the ________.
D) thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
Select the correct statement about urinary system development.
A) Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.
Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?
C) ridding the body of bicarbonate ions
Which statement is correct?
A) Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
A) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?
A) macula densa
Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?
C) electrolyte levels
Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
B) angiotensin II and aldosterone
Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?
C) macula densa cells
The capillary bed that surrounds the descending and ascending loop of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons is called the ________.
Urine crystals in the renal pelvis are called ________.
The need to get up in the middle of the night to urinate is called ________.
The area between the ureters and urethra is called the ________ in a bladder.
The ________ mechanism is the general tendency of vascular smooth muscle to contract when stretched
The presence of pus in the urine is a condition called ________.
Sodium-linked water flow across a membrane is called ________ water reabsorption.