25 notecards = 7 pages (4 cards per page)
Radiation-induced abnormalities are caused by unrepaired damage to:
DNA within ova or sperm
When a prediction is made that the number of excess cancers in a given population will increase as the natural incidence of cancer increases in that population with age, the risk is described by which of the following terms?
Laboratory experiments with mice prove that cataracts may be induced with doses of ionizing radiation as low as _____ Gy (_____ rads).
Genetic effects from exposure to ionizing radiation occur as a result of radiation-induced damage to the DNA molecule in which of the following?
1 and 2 only
Radiation dose-response curves can be used to predict the risk of _________ in human populations that have been exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation.
Radium decays with a half-life of:
Radiation-induced cataracts in humans follow a __________ dose-response relationship.
The human body can incorporate radium into bone because it is chemically similar to:
Mutations in genes and DNA that occur at random as natural phenomena are called _____ mutations.
Studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrate that the incidence of leukemia has _________ since the late 1940s and early 1950s and the incidence of solid tumors has continued to __________ since the late 1950s and early 1960s.
slowly declined, escalate
For an accurate estimate of the number of radiation-induced leukemias and other malignancies that may occur in some of the 135,000 evacuees from the 1986 nuclear power station accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, the exposed population must:
have long-term monitoring
Genetic mutations at the molecular level are called _____ mutations.
The term “linear nonthreshold curve” implies that the biologic response to ionizing radiation is _____ the dose.
directly proportional to
A radiation dose of 0.05 Gy to 0.15 Gy (5 to 15 rads) delivered to a human embryo during the preimplantation stage of development results in which of the following?
Of the following late somatic effects caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, which effect is considered to be most important?
Existing data on radiation-induced genetic effects in humans:
are still inconclusive
Uranium miners in the Colorado plateau who developed lung cancer years after exposure provide an example of which of the following?
Late stochastic somatic effects
What do agents such as chemicals, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and viruses have in common?
They are all mutagens that may increase the frequency of occurrence of mutations.
What is the mean value of the radiation doubling equivalent dose for humans, as determined from the offspring of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
1.56 Sv (156 rem)
In which of the following human populations is the risk for causing a radiation-induced cancer not directly measurable?
Which of the following groups of people exposed to ionizing radiation provide proof that low-level radiation exposure produces late effects?
None of the above
Normally, mutations in genetic material occur spontaneously, without a known cause. A genetic disorder is present in approximately ____% of all live births in the United States.
Today, as a result of programs stressing radiation safety education and protective devices, radiation workers employed in medical imaging:
need not experience any adverse health effects as a consequence of their work
Studies of postpartum patients treated with ionizing radiation for relief of mastitis indicate that in this group of individuals, radiation exposure to healthy breast tissue:
can cause breast cancer
After the 1986 nuclear power station accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, an attempt was made to prevent thyroid cancer in children in Poland and some other countries as a consequence of accidental overdose of iodine-131, __________ was administered as a substitute for take-up of iodine-131.