110 notecards = 28 pages (4 cards per page)
Gland atop of each kidney
The structural and functional units of the kidneys are?
Each nephron consists of ______ and ________
renal corpuscles and renal tubule
Another name for cortical radiate artery is?
Thick or thin?
The two types of nephrons are?
1. Cortical Nephrons
Cortical nephrons are responsible for_____ and represent ____% of the nephrons in the kidneys
diluted urine, 85%
Juxtamedullary nephrons are responsible for _______ and represent 15% of nephrons.
concentrated urine, 15%
Granular cells detect?
Macula Densa cells detect?
sodium chlorine concentration
Three steps of urine formation are?
1. Filtration- through glomerulus
Approximately how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute? How much is plasma
1. about 1200ml
Formula for Net Filtration Pressure is?
NFP= GBHP-[CHP+BCOP]= 10mm Hg
We must maintain ________mm Hg in net filtration.
55 mm Hg
HPg is opposed by what two forces that inhinit fluid loss from glomerular capillaries?
1. Colloid Osmotic Pressure of glomerular blood (OPg)
What is a major factor forcing fluids and solutes out of the blood?
The glomerular hydrostatic(blood) pressure (HPg)
The volume of filtrate formed each minute by the combined activity of all 2 million glomeruli in the kidney is?
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
Two controls that regulate glomerular filtration rate are?
intrinsic and extrinsic controls
Intrinsic controls act locally within the kidneys to maintain?
Glomerular filtration rate
The extrinsic controls are managed by what two systems? What do extrinsic controls maintain?
1. nervous and endocrine systems
INTRINSIC CONTROLS= Make long ter changes
Antidiuretic hormones make you pee more or less?
What do Antidiuretic hormones do?
Stimulate excretion of highly concentrated urine and enhances urea transport in the medullart collecting ducts. Also absorbs water and inserts aquaporins on membranes.
Anytime water is reabsorbed, it is reabsorbed by?
Sodium, Potassium, ect is transported by?
Active transport mechanism/pump
What is Aldosterone?
A hormone secreted to increase reabsorption of ions & water, causes urine to be more concentrated.
Aldosterone "fine-tunes" the reabsorption of remaining ___________.
Aldosterone indirectly affects?
potassium secretions and chlorine absorption.
Aldosterone directly affects?
What triggers the relesase of Aldosterone?
Angiotensin is mediated by?
ADH secreted= __________
1. concentrated urine
100% of ___________ is reabsorpted
The kidneys keep the solute load of all body fluids constant at about?
minimum urine formation is?
Descending loop of Henle is permeable to?
Ascending loop of Henle is permeable to? impermeable to?
permeable to sodium pump
Chemicals that enhance urinary output are?
The volume of plasma that is cleared of a particular substance in a given time, usually one min.
Renal clearance rate equation is:
Cratinine has a RC of?
when filtrate formation decreases or stops completely it is called?
use of an "artifical kidney" apparatus, passing the patients's blood through a membrane tubing that is permeable only to selected substances.
Yellow color in urine is due to?
Urine is slightly acidic around _____pH
The ratio of the mass of a substnace to the mass of an equal volume of distilled water is?
The specific gravity of urine ranges from?
1.001 to 1.035
Water accounts for ____% of urine volume
The largest component of urine by weight apart from water is_______?
Nitrogenous wastes in urine includes_____ & ________
Uric acid and creatinine
The smooth, triangular region of the bladder base outlined by three openings is the?
Maximum capacity of the bladder is?
The act of emptying the urinary bladder is called?
Water occupies two main fluid compartments:
1. intracellular fluid (ICF) ACCOUNTS FOR 65%
extracellular fluid compartments is divided into subcompartments:
The fluid portion of the blood is?
______ is in the microscopic spaces between tissue cells.
Water serves as a universal_________?
Equation for computing ions in solution:
mEq/L= ion concentraion(mg/L) X #of electrical charges on one ion
chief cation= sodium
Water intake is typically about?
2500 ml a day in adults
Water output occurs by several routes:
1. Vaporizes out of lungs in expired air
______% of water output is excreted by the kidneys in urine
Driving force for water intake is?
Some factors that trigger ADH relsease by reducing blood volume include:
Under certain conditions, ADH also acts to constrict arterioles which directly increases blood pressure or__________.
One of the most important renal functions is regulating the balance between?
sodium imput and out
What is Hypernatremia?
1. Hypernatremia is elevated sodium in the blood
What is Hyponatremia?
1.Hyponatremia is when sodium ion concentrate is plasma is below normal.
What is Hyperkalemia?
1. Hyperkalemia is when blood potassium level is to high
What is Hypokalemia?
1. Hypokalemia is when blood potassium level is to low.
What is Hyperchloremia?
1. Hyperchloremia is when chlorine levels in the blood are to high
What is Hypochloremia?
1. Hypochloremia is when chlorine levels in the blood are to low.
What is Hypercalcemia?
1. Hypercalcemia is when calcium level in the blood is to high.
What is Hypocalcemia?
1. Hypocalcemia is when calcium level in the blood is to low
What has the most to say about renal regulation of sodium ions concentrarion in the ECF?
what is not absorbed at all?
Mechanism that regulates glomerular filtration rate is?
Myogenic and Glomerular Apparatus
If your pancreas is having a tough time making glucose/insulin and exceeded T Max you have?
Water absortption that depends on presence of hormone ADH is called?
At any time, when sodium is absorbed, water follows. This is called?
Obligatory water reabsorption
________ requires carriers to transport substances that do not fit across membranes.
T Max means?
Transport Maximum- all carriers are loaded
Parathyroid hormone acts primarily at the? It increases the reabsorption of?
distal convoluted tube
Main cation= potassium
Urination urge generally comes every?
Maximum bladder capcity is?
Water makes up ___% of urine
Urochrome results from?
Urea has a RC of___?
Creatinine has a RC of ___?
RC for insulin is___?
Principle abnormalities of water balance are:
dehydration, hypotonic, edema
The first part of water that is absorbed is_______.
Difference between ADH and Aldosterone is?
ADH-> makes you absorb water
Partial Pressure of Plasma in CO2 is____?
35-45 mm Hg
Absolute blood pH limits for life are____.
low 7.0 & high 7.8
Bicarbonate inbalances are regulated by?
Kidneys in extracellular fluid
phosphate is the buffer in ____?
urine and intracellular fluid
Difference between an acid and a base is?
Acid-> proton donor
The most important buffer system in extracellular fluid is?
Bicarbonate buffer system
A system of one or more compounds that acts to resists changes in pH when a strong acid or base is added.
3 major chemical buffer systems are?
3 ways to determine pH in order from fastest to slowest.
1. Chemical Balance- fastest however least powerful
normal pH range is?
2 things that regulate calcium.
1. parathyroid hormones
Baroreceptors are located in?
Carotid arteries and Aorta
If pH of arterial blood rises above 7.45 a person is said to have?
If pH of arterial blood drops belown 7.35 a person is said to have?