242 notecards = 61 pages (4 cards per page)
What is the major function of the respiratory system?
-to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
What are 4 processes called respiration?
1. pulmonary ventilation
-air is moved into and out of the lungs (during inspiration and expiration) so the gases there are continuously changed and refreshed
-oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the lungs
Transport of Respiratory Gases
-oxygen is transported from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body; and carbon dioxide is transported from the tissue cells to the lungs
-oxygen diffuses from blood to tissue cells, and carbon dioxide diffuses from tissue cells to blood
What 2 processes is the respiration system responsible for?
-the respiratory system is only responsible for the first 2 processes
What happens if the last 2 processes don't occur?
-the respiratory system can't accomplish its primary goal of obtaining oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide unless the third and fourth processes occur
What system works simultaneously with the respiratory system?
-the circulatory system
-use of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide by tissue cells
What two functions is the respiratory system involved in?
1. the sense of smell
What are the 9 parts of the respiratory system?
What two zones does the respiratory system consist of?
1. respiratory zone
-actual site of gas exchange
-all other respiratory passageways
Why does the conducting zone humidify the air?
-so the air reaching the lungs has fewer irritants like dust and bacteria
-only external part of the respiratory system
What are 5 functions of the nose?
1. provides an airway for respiration
What 2 parts is the nose divided into?
1. nasal cavity
-air enters the cavity by passing through the nostrils
-separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity below
-supported by the by palatine and maxillary bones
-unsupported and muscular
-lined with sebaceous glands and hair follicles just superior to the nostrils
What 2 mucosa membranes is the nasal cavity lined with?
1. Olfactory Mucosa
-lines the slitlike superior region of the nasal cavity
-lines most of the nasal cavity
What do the nasal mucosa do?
-warms and humidifies the air
What does the epithelium do?
-its highly vascular and contains mucus cells which trap inhaled irritants, foreign objects, and bacteria
Seromucous Nasal Glands
-contain mucus secreting mucus cells and serous cells that secrete a watery fluid that contains enzymes
-mucus containing antibacterial enzyme
What does the epithelium do in the nose?
-the epithelium cells secrete defensins which are natural antibiotics that kill invading microbes
Why do we have a runny nose?
-when our nasal cilia, but when exposed to cold air they become sluggish, allowing mucus to accumulate in the nasal cavity and dribble out the nostrils
Why do we sneeze?
-the nasal mucosa is supplied with sensory nerve endings and when they contact with irritating particles it triggers a sneeze reflex
-increase the mucosal surface area that is exposed to air
-frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones
-when you bring your together and your teeth hurt, your gonna get a sinus infection because the maxillary sits on top of the root tips of the teeth and it drains causing pressure
-separate the left and right nostril
-unequal chambers, but you can change them to make them equal
What does it mean when something went down the wrong tube?
-the epiglottis didn't close fast enough
How is the cough reflex triggered?
-columnar cilia pushes the stuff up through the wrong tube to the pharynx to trigger the reflex
Post Nasal Drip
-during the night, the sinus fluid drains from the maxillary sinus and drains to the back of the throat and irritates and causes the inflammatory process but as the day goes on, it drains and you feel better
-serves only as the air passageway
-both swallowed food and inhaled air pass through it
-passage for food and air
What are the 3 functions of the larynx?
1. provide an open airway
-large, shield shaped, is formed by the fusion of two cartilage plates
-marks the fusion point
-perched atop and anchored to the trachea
-made of elastic cartilage
-the vocal folds and opening between them through the air passes
Epithelium of Larynx
-stratified squamous epithelium lines the upper part of the larynx because of food contact
What happens when we clear our throat?
-we help to move mucus up and out of the larynx
What is speech?
-involves the release of expired air as the glottis opens and closes
Why does a boys voice crack as they hit puberty?
-the boys larynx enlarges during puberty his vocal folds become longer and thicker
-inflammation of the vocal folds causes the vocal folds to swell which interferes with their vibration
Why do the vocal folds act as?
-acts as a sphincter that prevents air passage
How does smoking affect the cilia?
-it inhibits and destroys the cilia and without cilia, coughing is the only way to prevent mucus from accumulating in the lungs
-air comes in and meets at the pharynx
-glucose + oxygen
-other cartilage with a superior position
What are the 3 pairs of small cartilages found in the larynx?
-pyramid shaped cartilages, which anchor the vocal folds
True Vocal Cords
-lack blood vessels so it appears white
-vibrate to produce sounds as air rushes up from lungs
False Vocal Cords
What does the loudness of the voice depend on?
-the force with which the airstream rushes across the vocal folds
What does good enunciation depend on?
-muscles in the pharynx, tongue, soft palate, and lips that shape sound into recognizable consonants and vowels
-determined by length
Why do we temporarily close our larynx?
-during coughing, sneezing, and Vasalva's maneuver
-during abdominal straining associated with defecation, the glottis closes to prevent exhalation and the abdominal muscles contract causing the intra-abdominal pressure to rise
What are the 3 layers of the trachea?
Mucosa of the Trachea
-goblet cell containing pseudo stratified epithelium that occurs thru out most of the respiratory tacts
Submucosa of the Trachea
-connective tissue layer deep to the mucosa
Adventitia of the Trachea
-outer layer supported by the C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
-smooth muscle fibers that connect the cartilage rings
-C shaped and incomplete
-a procedure in which air in the victim's lungs is used to expel an obstructing piece of food
-23 times it branches
What does the trachea divide into?
-forms the right and left main bronchi
Right Main Bronchi
-wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left and it more common for a foreign object to get stuck there
-secondary bronchi branch into these and they divide into bronchioles
Conducting Zone Structures
Respiratory Zone Structures
How many alveoli are there?
What are the 3 structural changes that occur to the conducting tubes as they get smaller?
1. support structures
-thin walled air sac
-the respiratory zone begins as the terminal bronchioles feed into these
-respiratory bronchioles lead into these
-alveolar ducts leave into these
Can alveoli be damaged?
-yes smoking can damage them
Pores of Kohn
-where the trachea split into the bronchi
What are the 2 types of alveolar cells?
1. type 1 alveolar cells
Type 1 Alveolar Cells
-make up alveolus
Type 2 Alveolar Cells
-secrete surfactant and antimicrobial proteins that help immunity
-coats the alveolus and blocks the water molecules from sticking together
-blood air barrier
What happens if you have too much CO2 in your blood?
CO2 In Your Plasma
Why are alveoli covered with elastic fibers?
-can stretch, holds them open and holds their shape, shrink up alveoli which helps push air out, and helps it regain shape after being stretched
-the recoil helps to squeeze air out
What do the capillaries on the alveoli do?
-allow time to be shaved off in diffusion
-keep lungs sterile
-keep lungs dry
What do the lungs occupy?
-all of the thoracic cavity except the mediastinum
How do you make CO2?
-oxygen concentration is high in alveoli, carbon dioxide goes out and moves from capillary to alveoli
-vascular and bronchial attachments that connect the lung to the mediastinum
-anterior, lateral, and posterior lung surfaces lie in close contact with the ribs and form the continuously curving
-narrow superior tip of thel ungs
-concave, inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm
-an indentation where the pulmonary and systemic blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatics, and nerves enter and leave the lungs
Do the 2 lungs differ in size and shape?
-yes, because the apex of the heart is slightly to the left so the left lung is smaller than the right
-divided into superior and inferior lobes by the oblique fissure
-divided into the superior, middle, and inferior lobes by the oblique and horizontal fissure
-housed in separate pleural cavities
Why are the segments important?
-pulmonary disease is often confined to one or a few segments
What 2 circulations are lungs perfused by?
1. pulmonary circulation
-systemic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in the lungs
-convey the freshly oxygenated blood from the respiratory zone of the lungs to the heart
-low pressure, high volume circulation
-provide oxygenated systemic blood to lung tissue
-high pressure, low volume supply of oxygenated blood to all lungs tissues except the alveoli
-drain some systemic venous blood from the lungs
What happens when there is water in the lungs?
-cause the stickiness would cause alveoli to stick together causing respiratory failure
What happened to premature babies before technology?
- in premature babies, they don’t have surfactant which when they try to breathe in the humidify air which causes the alveoli to collapse
-a thin, double-layered serosa
-covers the thoracic wall
-cover the organs
-the period when air flows into the lungs
-the period when gases exit the lungs
What happens when you inhale?
-when you inhale, ribs rise and your diaphragm drops down which changes the volume of the thoracic cavity making it bigger
What happens when the diaphragm contracts?
What is the number one muscle in respiration?
-tells diaphragm to contract and flattens out by the phrenic nerve
-general term for fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity
What 2 forces act to pull long away from thoracic wall which promote the lung to collapse?
1. elasticity of lungs which allows them to assume possible size
-elasticity of chest wall pulls thorax outward to enlarge lungs
-pressure in the pleural cavity (750 mmHg)
-pressure in the alveoli
Why is pleural pressure less?
-pressure needs to be different because if the same, nothing would happen
-air in the pleural cavity
-no one hurt or touched them
-major source of resistance is friction
As air resistance increase...
-breathing movements are more strenuous
Severely constricted/obstructed bronchioles...
-prevent life sustaining ventilation
What is the wheezing sound?
-air trying to squeeze through the bronchioles
-shrinks up tissues, and increase air resistance
-ease with which lungs can be expanded
What 2 factors affect lung compliance?
1. distensibility of lung tissue and surrounding thoracic cage
-can you fill them and will they expand
-need people after surgeries to walk around so they can ventilate the ribs
Reduce Lung Compliance
-scar tissue (fibrosis)
Anatomical Dead Space
-volume of the conducting respiratory passages (150 mL); air in bronchi
Does all the air find its way to the alveoli?
-no because no exchange is going on
Alveolar Dead Space
-alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction
Total Dead Space
-sum of alveolar & anatomical dead space
Alveolar Ventilation Rate
-measures flow of fresh gases into & out of the alveoli during a particular time; more accurate as it takes into account dead space
Pulmonary Function Test
-Spirometry can distinguish between:
-total amount of gas flow into or out of the respiratory tract in 1 min
-12 breaths per minute (6L/min)
Force Vital Capacity
-gas forcibly expelled after taking a breath
Forced Expiratory Volume
-amount of gas expelled during specific time period of the FVC test
Why do we yawn?
-to delivery more oxygen to lungs
Nonrespiratory Air Movement
-movements that don't allow for gas exchange
How fast is a sneeze and how far does it go?
-35 mph and 17 feet
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
-total pressure exerted by mixture of gases is sum of pressures exerted independently by each gas mixture
-mixture of gas is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
Various Gases in Air Have Different Solubilites
-CO2 is the most
Whats the hissing noise of pop?
-carbon dioxide by forcing it into the bottle and when you open it up it breaks out of the pressure and then it gets flat because there is no more CO2
Partial Pressure Gradients and Gas Solubilities
-if the concentration of 02 is 40mmHg and 30 mmHg on the other side and on the other its 40mmHg and 10 mmHg it would move faster on the second one because the concentration gradient is bigger, a steep concentration gradient
Why is there a steep gradient between oxygen and carbon dioxide?
-partial pressure oxygen (PO2) of venous blood is 40mmHg; the partial pressure in the alveoli is 104mmHg
-oxygen is higher and carbon is lower
Alveoli of Lungs
-oxygen is lower but higher than oxygen because alveoli takes a few molecules
Blood Leaving Tissues and Entering Lungs
-oxygen is lower than carbon dioxide
Blood Leaving Lungs and Entering Tissue Capillaries
-oxygen is higher and carbon is lower
-oxygen is less than 40 and carbon is greater than 45
-you are able to breathe into them because you have a lot of O2 that you breathe out
Ventilation vs. Perfusion
-able to get air into lungs
-getting oxygen through respiratory membrane to the circulation
Mismatch of Ventilation and Perfusion
-ventilation drop and or perfusion rise of alveoli causes local CO2 to increase and O2 rises
Ventilation Greater than Perfusion
-ventilation is high and or perfusion is low of alveoli causes local CO2 to be low and O2 high
Ventilation Perfusion Coupling
-they both must be tightly regulated for efficient gas exchange
What happens when oxygen levels are low?
-in the lungs where oxygen levels are low, the vessels will vasoconstrict in order to shunt the blood to areas where the concentration of oxygen is higher and increase the amount of oxygen and hence hemoglobin
-breathe really quickly, and rapidly
-light headedness due to breathing rapidly and hyperventilating
-order this to rule out a pulmonary embolism that usually comes from the legs to the lungs
What are the 3 steps to the VQ scan?
1. radioactive compound inhaled into airspace of lung. In a normal lung this will distribute evenly to all regions
Why do lungs thicken?
-they become waterlogged and edematous, whereas by gas exchange is inadequate & oxygen deprivation results
-oxygen bound to hemoglobin
-when all four hemes of the molecule are bound to oxygen
-ability for it to bind to hemoglobin
Partially Saturated Hemoglobin
-when one to three hemes are bound to oxygen
What is the rate that hemoglobin binds and releases regulated by?
CO2 Levels High
-concentration of O2
Lower Temp. In Lungs
-higher affinity of O2
O2 Deep in Tissue
-drop off O2
Higher CO2 Concentration Deeper in Tissues
-they decrease the affinity of oxygen
Why does breathing increase the PO2?
-saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood increase the PO2, but has little effect on O2 saturation in Hemoglobin
What percent of saturated arterial blood contains 20 mL O2?
How much is released as it flows through capillaries?
-5mL of O2
What happens once hemoglobin is saturated?
-has nowhere to go, forms O3 stripping away electrons from healthy molecules
At what number is hemoglobin almost completely saturated?
-PO2 of 70 mmHg
When is O2 loading and delivery to tissues adequate?
-when PO2 is below normal levels
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Hemoglobin Saturation Curve
-if O2 levels drop, we go to reserve
High Temperature, H, PCO2, BPG
-decrease in hemoglobin affinity for O2
-as cells metabolize glucose, CO2 is released causing a decline in pH (acidosis), which weakens the hemoglobin and oxygen bond
What 3 ways in carbon dioxide transported?
1. dissolved in plasma (7-10%)
Carbonic Acid/Bicarbonate Buffer System
-enzyme that speeds up equation reaction
-H binds to plasma proteins
-H binds with hemoglobin from HbO2->O2+Hb(buffer_
-HCO3 moves into the plasma where it then goes to the lungs
Fast Reaction to Lungs
-the lower PO2 & Hb saturation with O3, the more CO2 can be carried in blood
-allows CO2 to accumulate dropping pH
Control Respiration in Medulla
-CO2 concentrations in plasma influence what happens in brain
-cause vasoconstriction (-) effect
-receptors in muscles and joints