55 notecards = 14 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Assume that you are trying to insert a gene into a plasmid. Someone gives you a preparation of genomic DNA that has been cut with restriction enzyme X. The gene you wish to insert has sites on both ends for cutting by restriction enzyme Y. You have a plasmid with a single site for Y, but not for X. Your strategy should be to
2) How does a bacterial cell protect its own DNA from restriction enzymes?
3) What is the most logical sequence of steps for splicing foreign DNA into a plasmid and inserting the plasmid into a bacterium?
4) A principal problem with inserting an unmodified mammalian gene into a BAC, and then getting that gene expressed in bacteria, is that
5) A gene that contains introns can be made shorter (but remain functional) for genetic engineering purposes by using
6) Why are yeast cells frequently used as hosts for cloning?
7) The DNA fragments making up a genomic library are generally contained in
8) Yeast artificial chromosomes contain which of the following elements?
9) Which of the following best describes the complete sequence of steps occurring during every cycle of PCR?
10) A researcher needs to clone a sequence of part of a eukaryotic genome in order to express the sequence and to modify the polypeptide product. She would be able to satisfy these requirements by using which of the following vectors?
11) A student wishes to clone a sequence of DNA of ~200 kb. Which vector would be appropriate?
12) Sequencing an entire genome, such as that of C. elegans, a nematode, is most important because
13) To introduce a particular piece of DNA into an animal cell, such as that of a mouse, you would find more probable success with which of the following methods?
14) The major advantage of using artificial chromosomes such as YACs and BACs for cloning genes is that
15) Which of the following is used to make complementary DNA (cDNA) from RNA?
16) Why is it so important to be able to amplify DNA fragments when studying genes?
17) Pax-6 is a gene that is involved in eye formation in many invertebrates, such as Drosophila. Pax-6 is found as well in vertebrates. A Pax-6 gene from a mouse can be expressed in a fly and the protein (PAX-6) leads to a compound fly eye. This information suggests which of the following?
18) Why are BACs preferred today rather than bacteriophages for making genomic libraries?
19) The reason for using Taq polymerase for PCR is that
20) Why might a laboratory be using dideoxy nucleotides?
21) In order to identify a specific restriction fragment using a probe, what must be done?
22) Which of the following modifications is least likely to alter the rate at which a DNA fragment moves through a gel during electrophoresis?
23) DNA fragments from a gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose paper during the procedure called Southern blotting. What is the purpose of transferring the DNA from a gel to a nitrocellulose paper?
24) DNA microarrays have made a huge impact on genomic studies because they
25) Which of the following describes the transfer of polypeptide sequences to a membrane to analyze gene expression?
26) Which of the following uses reverse transcriptase to make cDNA followed by amplification?
27) RNAi methodology uses double-stranded pieces of RNA to trigger a breakdown or blocking of mRNA. For which of the following might it more possibly be useful?
28) A researcher has used in vitro mutagenesis to mutate a cloned gene and then has reinserted this into a cell. In order to have the mutated sequence disable the function of the gene, what must then occur?
29) Which of the following techniques used to analyze gene function depends on the specificity of DNA base complementarity?
30) Silencing of selected genes is often done using RNA interference (RNAi). Which of the following questions would not be answered with this process?
31) In large scale, genome-wide association studies in humans, correlation is sought between
32) For a particular microarray assay (DNA chip), cDNA has been made from the mRNAs of a dozen patients' breast tumor biopsies. The researchers will be looking for
33) Which of the following is most closely identical to the formation of twins?
34) In 1997, Dolly the sheep was cloned. Which of the following processes was used?
35) Which of the following problems with animal cloning might result in premature death of the clones?
36) Reproductive cloning of human embryos is generally considered unethical. However, on the subject of therapeutic cloning there is a wider divergence of opinion. Which of the following is a likely explanation?
37) Which of the following is true of embryonic stem cells but not of adult stem cells?
38) A researcher is using adult stem cells and comparing them to other adult cells from the same tissue. Which of the following is a likely finding?
39) In animals, what is the difference between reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning?
40) As genetic technology makes testing for a wide variety of genotypes possible, which of the following is likely to be an increasingly troublesome issue?
The DNA profiles that follow represent four different individuals.
42) Which of the following statements is most likely true?
43) Which of the following are probably siblings?
A eukaryotic gene has "sticky ends" produced by the restriction endonuclease EcoRI. The gene is added to a mixture containing EcoRI and a bacterial plasmid that carries two genes conferring resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline. The plasmid has one recognition site for EcoRI located in the tetracycline resistance gene. This mixture is incubated for several hours, exposed to DNA ligase, and then added to bacteria growing in nutrient broth. The bacteria are allowed to grow overnight and are streaked on a plate using a technique that produces isolated colonies that are clones of the original. Samples of these colonies are then grown in four different media: nutrient broth plus ampicillin, nutrient broth plus tetracycline, nutrient broth plus ampicillin and tetracycline, and nutrient broth without antibiotics.
45) Bacteria containing a plasmid into which the eukaryotic gene has integrated would grow in
46) Bacteria that do not take up any plasmids would grow on which media?
A group of six students has taken samples of their own cheek cells, purified the DNA, and used a restriction enzyme known to cut at zero, one, or two sites in a particular gene of interest.
48) Their next two steps, in order, should be
49) Analysis of the data obtained shows that two students each have two fragments, two students each have three fragments, and two students each have one only. What does this demonstrate?
50) Which of the following tools of recombinant DNA technology is incorrectly paired with its use?
51) Plants are more readily manipulated by genetic engineering than are animals because
52) A paleontologist has recovered a bit of tissue from the 400-year-old preserved skin of an extinct dodo (a bird). To compare a specific region of the DNA from the sample with DNA from living birds, which of the following would be most useful for increasing the amount of dodo DNA available for testing?
53) DNA technology has many medical applications. Which of the following is not done routinely at present?
54) In recombinant DNA methods, the term vector can refer to
55) Which of the following would not be true of cDNA produced using human brain tissue as the starting material?