137 notecards = 35 pages (4 cards per page)
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?
The notable hardness of bone is attributed to ________.
the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites
The indicated blood vessels and nerve are found within a ______.
Central (Haversian) canal
When should prevention of osteoporosis start?
The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children while bones are still growing. Children should increase their bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis in the future.
The term diploë refers to the ________.
internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?
the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
In adults, yellow marrow is located ________.
in the medullary cavity of long bones
The osteon is ________.
the structural unit of compact bone
The pituitary gland is housed in the ________.
sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
In which step (A-D) does the formation of compact bone first occur?
Why, or why not, is swimming recommended as an exercise to prevent osteoporosis?
Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is not considered a weight-bearing exercise.
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
Which bone cells form bone?
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?
The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk.
Cranial bones develop ________.
within fibrous membranes
A step in which bone-forming process is shown in the figure?
The above figure depicts which of the following bone-forming processes?
intramembranous ossification during embryonic development
Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.
For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?
An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.
Which of the following substances is NOT a component of the osteoid material secreted by the cells indicated by the arrow in panel A?
During bone growth, which significant event occurs at the surface indicated by the letter C?
Which description of bone cells is INCORRECT?
Osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts.
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?
In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?
elevated levels of sex hormones
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.
blood vessels and nerve fibers
In which of the labeled parts of the adult long bone would hematopoietic tissue be located?
Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.
is produced by secondary ossification centers
The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.
Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light.
The hormone that is primarily involved in the control of bone remodeling is the parathyroid hormone.
Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone?
How can a tooth be moved in a bony socket during orthodontic treatment?
By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reabsorb, while the bone on the reverse side will be reformed.
What tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification?
Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite.
During bone growth, which event is most significant at the surface indicated by the letter A?
expansion of the cartilage matrix
Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?
Osteomyelitis is ________.
due to pus-forming bacteria
What controls bone remodeling?
mechanical stress and hormones
The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________.
What bone-associated structure in panel C is indicated by the arrow?
A Pott's fracture could result in damage to all of the following except ____________.
What event precedes the step in the bone-forming process shown in the figure?
calcification of the cartilage matrix
In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow.
The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is ________.
hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.
Hematopoiesis is a term for which of the following physiological processes?
blood cell formation
Osteocytes are connected to each other through which structure?
During bone growth, which event is most significant at the surface indicated by the letter B?
calcification of the cartilage matrix
Choose the TRUE statement.
Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).
Which of the following bones are formed by the illustrated process?
All of the listed responses are correct.
The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones.
There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.
The illustrated bone-forming process would be associated with which of the following bones?
Hyaline cartilage ________.
is found on the ends of bones that form movable joints
Which bone acts as a moveable base for the tongue?
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is ________.
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.
by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?
The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?
sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
The dens articulates with the axis.
Which of the following is the major component of the part of the bone labeled E?
What is the final stage in the healing of a bone fracture?
Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.
Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.
interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
Which of the following is not a movement that can occur between vertebrae?
Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.
Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region?
What makes up the axial skeleton?
the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses?
Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull.
The main role of the appendicular skeleton is to protect and support vital organs.
The arrow in the figure is pointing to which of the following structures?
the epiphyseal plate
What causes osteoporosis?
Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.
When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called ________.
During bone growth, which significant event occurs at the surface indicated by the letter D?
Which of the following refers to a bone disorder found most often in the aged and resulting in the bones becoming porous and light?
Which of the following phrases best describes the function of the vertebral curves?
to provide resilience and flexibility
Mastoiditis is most likely to result from an infection spreading from the throat.
The cells indicated by the arrow at the center of panel A arise from the differentiation of which precursor stem cell?
Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes.
What type of bone is the patella?
Choose the CORRECT pairing.
paget's disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption
Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone.
What is endochondral ossification?
the formation of bone from pre-existing hyaline cartilage models
Mrs. Mulligan goes to her dentist and, after having a couple of cavities filled, her dentist strongly suggests that she reduce her intake of sodas and increase her intake of calcium phosphates in the foods she eats. Why?
Sodas are strong acids that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.
Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?
What is absolutely required for bone growth or healing from a fracture?
Dense connective tissue forms part of which labeled part of the adult long bone in the figure?
Choose the FALSE statement.
Long bones include all limb bones except the patella.
Wolff's law is concerned with ________.
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
Which of the labeled parts of the bone is composed primarily of compact bone?
Which of the following is UNLIKELY to affect bone remodeling?
The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.
An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.
Bones are classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function.
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
Alice and James adopted a 3-year-old child from a developing country. They noticed that her legs were bowed and there were some deformities in her cranial and pelvic bones. They brought her to a physician for a diagnosis. What was the diagnosis, and what was the treatment for the disorder?
The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.
The structures in the figure collectively form a structural unit termed a(n) ______.
Osteogenesis is the process of ________.
Which of the following hormones is currently thought to decrease plasma calcium levels in pregnant women and children?
PTH promotes the formation of which hormone?
Which of the following would NOT be a way that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could alter plasma calcium levels? (Which one of the following is FALSE?)
increase osteoblasts on bone
Which hormone works directly in the intestine to increase plasma calcium levels?
Which of the labeled parts of the bone is composed primarily of hyaline cartilage?
A step in what bone forming process is shown in the figure?
Bones do NOT have a role in ________.
The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are called ________.
What is osteoid?
the organic part of the matrix of bone
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.
The structure indicated by the arrow is composed primarily of what material?
What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
Flat bones consist of compact bone sandwiched between spongy bone.
All bones stop growing by the end of adolescence.
What part of the femur articulates (joints) with the patella? Select from letters A-D.
Which type of cartilage covers and protects the ends of bones at freely moveable joints?
What indicates that a long bone has reached its adult length?
closure of the epiphyseal plate
Hypercalcemia can be caused by_________.
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone
break down bone
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
The indicated osteocyte is located within layers of bony matrix termed ______.
Which of the following is stored in bones?
Which of the following is a bone projection?
The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.
The structural unit of spongy is called ________.
Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?
Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.
Which bone serves as an enclosure for the pituitary gland?
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is of greatest importance for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
In adults, hematopoietic tissue is NOT found in ________.
the medullary cavity of long bones
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?
The epiphyseal plate is ________.
where long bone lengthening occurs
Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?
compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
Which of the following bones is a part of the appendicular skeleton?