169 notecards = 43 pages (4 cards per page)
What process do photoautotrophic plants use to make energy molecuses like ATP and NADPH?
In what process do photoautotrophic plants make glucose?
What process is used to break down sugars to release ATP (in presence of oxygen)?
aerobic cellular respiration
Where do plants get their carbon that they use in new cells to grow larger?
From CO2 in the air
Where in a cell does water splitting and photophosphorylation occur?
Where in a cell does the Calvin Cycle occur?
Where in a cell does aerobic cellular respiration occur?
In what part of the plant does the vast amount of both the water splitting reactions (photophosphorylation) and carbon fixation (both together are photosynthesis)occur?
the leaves (blades)
What are two common dissacharides transported in plants?
sucrose and maltose
What is the form of water movement in a plant that involves evaporation at the stoma and new water moving up through the xylem?
What physical property of water allows it to move and "follow" evaporating water in the plant?
When is transpiration the greatest?
When conditions are hot, dry, and windy.
What is one way a plant can limit transpiration?
reducing the diameter of the stoma by SHRINKING the guard cells.
What accounts for most of the lateral movement of water in plants?
What is the condition in which water in all vascular tissue is being raised and held in check against gravity due to charged molecules in the tissue?
Movement of material outside the cytoplasm of a cell
Movement of material inside the cytoplasm of a cell
A section in the cell walls of endodermal cells that is lipid based and is hydrophobic. Water can't pass over this strip and must gain entry to the xylem via a symplastic route
The flow of water into a plan via osmosis when transpiration isn't occuring
cells that take sugar OUT of the sieve cells are called
transfer cells (sink cells)
cells that put sugar into the sieve cells are called
companion cells (source cells)
What processes are responsible for the transport of water within the bodies of plants?
osmosis, transpiration and adhesion
Photophosphorylation, ATP, NADPH, and the Calvin Cycle are all part of a biochemical process called:
the name for the kind of bond that results from the attraction between water molecules is:
In plants, water & ions are transported without sugars in special cells called:
tracheids & vessel elements
he two routes (not processes) through the plant roots that water uses to enter the xylem from the environment are:
symplastic and the apoplastic
Cellular respiration in plants:
occurs in the mitochondrion
Transpiration is greatest in plants under which of the following conditions?
hot and dry
waxy layer on the leaves that prevent h20 loss and very frequently reduce fungal attack
protein material found in spore and pollen walls that provide desication (drying out) resistance.
living, non-preproductive cells thta surround gametes and keep them from drying out
Name the four synapomorphies between land based plants and charophhytes
1. rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins
The changing from haploid to diploid structures we see in ALL plants is referred to as
alternation of generations (in plants both stages are multicellular)
Term for the structure that provides additional protection and nutrition for developing embryo and help with increased dispersal.
structures that bear the ovules and/or pollen of a plant. can encourage pollinators with rewards
What are the 3 characteristics unique to Animals?
1. have unique embryological patterns
Term for animals that means they all started with one common ancestral population
What is the group of organisms that most resemble the earliest animal ancestors?
Choanoflagellates resemble what type of cell in some animals?
collar cells of sponges etc.
Is a group of cells that take on many different functions a true tissue or a 'not' true tissue
not true tissue
name the group with non-true tissue
name the group with true tissue
What 3 taxa have radial symmetry?
Term for symmetry of an organism along one plane only
what protistan clad is the closets living relatives to the animals and likely shared a common ancestor
Which of the following is a coating on leaves that keeps water in and disease out?
Sperm cells are formed inside of plant structures called:
Which Phylum contains clams, oysters, snails, squid, and octopi?
Which Phylum includes all the vertebrate animals, e. g. the fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals?
Which one of the following is not a characteristic of the animal kingdom?
D. the haploid stage dominates the life cycle
What is the common group name for taxa that have true tissues?
A jellyfish has what type of body symmetry and to what commonly named group (i.e. not a phylum name) does it belong?
radial; the radiata
Of the following taxa, which one is the largest (i.e. contains the most species)?
Which one of the following is not a synapomorphy between the Charophytes and land plants?
B. cuticle matrix material
The large triangular shaped fin of a shark that cuts through the water when the shark is on on the surface would most likely be called?
What taxa are the sponges a part of?
What taxa are the jellyfish, corals, and anemones part of?
What taxa are the comb jellyfish part of?
What taxa are the flat worms such as tapeworms a part of?
What taxa contains the rotifers?
What taxa contains the roundworms (nonsegmented)?
What taxa contains the segmented worms such as earthworms, marine worms, leeches?
What taxa includes the snails, clams, oysters, squid, and octopi?
Which taxa includes the insects, crustaceans, and arachnids?
Which taxa includes the starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers?
What taxa includes the tunicates, hagfish, and vertebrates?
What is the largest taxa of animals?
Ball shaped tiny structure that early animals are hypothesized to start out as
Term for space inside the blastula
Outside layer of blastula
Blastula turns into an object with a cavity. The object is now called a
Process that generates a gastrula in a blastula is called
Pocket inside the blastula/gastrula is called the
The opening to the archenteron is called the
Term for the lining inside the archenteron of the blastula/gastrula
Term for organisms that have two embryonic tissue (germ) layers
Name the two taxa of dipoblastic animals
Cnidarians and Ctenophores
Term for organisms that have three embryonic germ layers
What are the 3 layers in a tripoblastic animal
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
What does the ectoderm become?
epidermis and nervous system
What does the endoderm become?
digestive system lining, liver, lungs
What does the mesoderm become?
muscle, connective tissue, and other organs
Tripoblastic animals with no internal body cavity lined by mesoderm are called
Tripoblastic animals with have a body cavity that is lined by mesoderm on one side are called
The body cavity in a psuedocoelom that is lined with meoderm on only one side is called a
hemocoel (blood cavity where most of the organs are found)
What taxa are psuedocoelomates?
Nematoda and Rotifera
Tripoblastic animals that have body cavities completely lined by mesoderm are called
The blastopore becomes the mouth in what type of animal?
protostomes (means first mouth)
The blastopore becomes the anus in what type of animal?
deuterostomes (means other mouth)
Type of development of coleom in protostomes is called
Protostomes use what type of cell cleavage?
In deuterstomes, the mesoderm forms from sections of the archenteron wall. This type of coelum development is called
Deuterostomes use what type of cell cleavage?
What taxa are protostomes?
mollusca, annelida, arthoropoda
What taxa are deuterstomes?
The system that is comprised of a network of vessels for the circulation of fluids throughout the animal body
In what type of circlulatory system does a blood-like fluid completely surround and bath all organs?
open circulatory system
What is the name for the fluid in an open circulatory system that is a mix of blood and interstitial fluid?
Eumetazoans that have an open circulatory system are
Does hemolymph play a role in respiraton of insects?
Type of circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels
closed circulatory system
Eumetazoan groups with closed circulatory systems
annelids, cephalopod (octopi & squid) molluscs, vertebrates
Arteries carry blood where?
Arteries: away from the heart
Name for the smallest blood vessels that connect arterioles to venules
Which blood vessels carry a large amount of blood under HIGH pressure
What are ateries mostly made up of?
mostly connective tissue
Veins are made up of more or less smooth muscle than arteries?
What are the major functions of blood?
1. transport of nutrients
Which blood carrier uses iron?
Which blood carrier uses copper?
Blood is composed of what two parts?
Plasma, formed elements
What do the formed elements of blood contain?
red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets (for clotting)
Is the speed of blood in the capillaries higher or lower than the speed in the larger vessels?
Slower (due to the vastly greater number of capillaries)
The force of the blood against the capillary wall is called
Hydrostatic pressure is greatest when...
greatest when blood first entering the capillary
the force required to prevent water from moving across a barier
where is osmotic pressure the highest
at the veinule end of the capillary.
What causes the osmotic pressure into the capillary?
the blood in the capillary has a high concentration of albumin
What cavity is labeled #1?
What cavity is labeled #2
What is the tissue labeled #3?
What will the tissue (layer) labeled #3 become in an adult deuterostome?
What will the tissue lining, of the cavity labeled #2, become in an adult protostome?
gut tube lining
Which one of the following characterizes protostomes?
they are schizocoelous & develop from spiral cleavage
Which one of the following follows schizocoelous development?
In which end of a capillary is hydrostatic pressure lower than osmotic pressure?
Which one of the following is the O2 carrier in many arthropods?
Rotifers and Nematodes are considered:
5 taxa of animals that use body surface respiration:
what are the three major types of respiratory organs
tracheal systems, gills, lungs
in what animal group are tracheal systems typically found?
openings on the body surface that connect to the tracheal system
smallest part of a tracheal system
tracheoles (have direct contact with all cells)
What is used to keep the tracheal tubes open in insects?
chitin (it is heavy and this is why insects can't grow very large)
name for a structure that is a cluster of hydrophobic setae surrounding the spiracles of a tracheal system. They keep water from inetering and maintain a permanent layer of air around the body of an aquatic insect
Two things all gills have in common
they present a very large surface area to the external environment
tufted or branching gills are called
plate like gills are called
type of gill adapted for maximum efficiency
bivalve molluscs have what type of gill
term for a gill mechanism whereby water flows over the gills in the opposite direction of blood flow for maximum O2 absorption
Lungs are found in what invertebrates?
some crustaceans and some mollucs (order pulmonata)
Lungs of amphibians are typically inflated using positive pressure. Some frogs swallow air in a process called
name a creature that is lungless and exchanges gasses through their always moist skin and the lining of their mouths
Alligators have a system that involves a muscle connecting the liver to the pubic bone in order to inflate the lungs. It is called
Mammalian lungs use what muscle for inflation
the respiratory surface is made up of what structure
what are the 3 interactions that assist in gas exchange
partial pressure differences
The majority of co2 is transported as
bicarbonate ion hco3-
Animals in aquatic environments specialize in removing excess nitrogen in wastes as
Animals in non aquatic environments that need to limit water excretion but can't handle high concentrations remove nitrogen as
Animals that need to preserve the most water excrete urine as
term for the removal of metabolic waste
term for the removal of undigested waste
simplest structure for excretion
cell arrangements for excretion are referred to as
excretion form used by platyhelminthes using a flame cell and tube cell that empty out through excretory pores
excretion form that is the simplest closed circuit
glands that are stand alone nephridia found at the base of the antennae in crayfish and other crustaceans
kidneys perform what 3 functions
filtrate the blood
Which one of the following taxa do not use their body surface, in whole or in part, for gas exchange?
The Insects have what type of respiratory system?
A. tracheal system
What would be the main limitation of a concurrent* system, for gas exchange, in the gills of fish? *concurrent system = the blood and the water washing over the gill lamella both flow in the same direction (ie. opposite of countercurrent flow)
It would not maintain a gradient favorable for gas exchange along the entire length of a lamella.
Amphibians use which of the following mechanism(s) for respiration?
both B & C
The majority of CO2 of mammals is transported as what material in their blood?
A. the bicarbonate ion
At the cardiovascular/tissue interface, which one of the following will occur under normal conditions?
the loading of CO2 onto globin forces the unloading of O2 into the tissues
Which of the following taxa secrete their nitrogen waste in the form of ammonia?
B, C, and D
What type of excretory system use flame cells as its functional unit?
The functional unit of a kidney is what? What are its 2 major parts?
A. nephron; renal corpuscle & renal tubules