17 notecards = 5 pages (4 cards per page)
The system of officials and their employees administering or managing government policies and programs.
Attorney general’s opinion
Interpretation of the constitution, statutory laws, or administrative laws by Texas’s attorney general. Government officials may request opinions, and although they are not legally binding, government officials usually follow them.
The hiring of private contractors to perform government services and functions
A system that gives elected officials considerable discretion in employment and promotion decisions.
The practice by which public officials award government contracts to benefit their campaign contributors, supporters, and allies. Also referred to as contract patronage.
A pyramid shaped administrative organization in which several employees report to a single higher administrator until only one person with ultimate authority remains at the top
(merit) system An employment system used by governments that takes merit into account in hiring and promotions.
Clientele interest groups
The groups most concerned with the laws and policies being administered by a government agency.
Iron Texas Star
A model depicting policy making in Texas by a coalition of interests that includes interest groups, the lieutenant governor, the speaker, standing committees, the governor, administrators, and boards and commissions.
The rules and regulations written by administrators to administer a law. The effectiveness of a law is often determined by how administrative law is written.
Administrators’ study and interpretation of a law and writing the rules and regulations to implement the law’s enforcement. All laws undergo administrative review, whereas relatively few undergo judicial review, which is the courts’ interpretation of the law.
The obligation of officials to be directly answerable to the voters for their actions. This allows elected administrators to ignore the wishes of the chief executive.
A system that allows the chief executive to appoint and remove top level administrators, thereby giving the chief executive more control over the administration.
Open meetings laws
With some exceptions, laws that require meetings of government bodies that make decisions concerning the public interest to be open to public scrutiny.
Open records laws
Laws that require most records kept by government to be open for the examination of the parties involved.
Government employees who expose corruption, incompetence, and criminal acts by other government employees.
An official who hears complaints of employees and citizens concerning government administrators or policy administration. Ombudsmen usually lack authority to force administrative compliance, but they can bring the complaints to the proper authorities and represent the interests of the complaining individual within the administration.