48 notecards = 12 pages (4 cards per page)
What does the Respiratory system consist of?
-Nose, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs
What are the parts of the Upper and Lower Respiratory Systems?
What is the Bony Framework for the external nose?
Made up of the frontal, nasal and maxillae bones.
What are the 2 openings on the underside of the nose, and what is their function?
-External Nares, or Nostrils
Describe the Large Cavity.
It is in the skull inferior to the nasal bone and superior to the mouth. It connects to the exterior nose anteriorly; it connects tot eh pharynx via two openings, which are the internal nares. Ducts from the Paranasal Sinuses connect to the internal nose.
What are the bones that contain sinuses?
Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, and Maxillae
What are the bones of the internal nose?
Ethmoid, Maxillae, Lacrimal, Palatine, and the inferior Conchae
What is the space within the internal nose?
The Nasal Cavity
What is the Anterior Portion of the nasal cavity?
What is the Vestibule separated by?
The Nasal Septum
What does the vestibule contain?
It contains the Superior, Middle, and Inferior Meatuses (that are covered with mucous membranes)
What lies on and near the Superior Meatus?
Describe the dimensions of the Pharynx
It is the throat.
What is the Pharynx a passageway for?
it is a passageway for Food and Air
What are the 3 regions of the Pharynx?
Describe the Nasopharynx
-extends from behind the nasal cavity to the soft palate.
Describe the Oropharynx
-extends from the soft palate to the level of the hyoid bone
Describe the Laryngopharynx
-begins at the hyoid bone and extends to the larynx
Describe where the Larynx lies and what is is made up of.
-AKA the Voice Box
What is the Epiglottis?
A large leaf-shaped cartilage that covers the Glottis (the vocal cords) during swallowing.
Describe where the Trachea lies.
-is about 5 inches long
What makes up the Trachea?
The walls consist of mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, and adventitia which is composed of areolar connective tissue
Describe the left and right Bronchi
What dot he bronchi do as the go farther into the lungs?
-they subdivide into secondary and tertiary bronchi and eventually terminate in bronchioles, much smaller tubules of the respiratory tract
What are Alveoli composed of?
-composed of simple squamous epithelium which allows for diffusion of gases (look like grapes and are at the ends of bronchi branches)
What are the Lungs?
Paired cone-shaped organs located in the thoracic cavity
What is the location of the lungs?
-they extend from the clavicle to the diaphragm. The inferior portion is broad and termed the Base; the superior portion is pointed and is termed the Apex
Compare the Right and Left Lungs
Involves inhalation and exhalation of air between the atmosphere and the lungs
Is the exchange of gases between the alveoli in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
The exchange of Gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells
What are Inhalation and Exhalation governed by?
What needs to happen for Inspiration to occur?
-Diaphragm contracts, which lowers it, and the external intercostals muscles contract, which expands the ribs
What percent of Oxygen dissolves into the blood?
1.5% of oxygen dissolves into the blood; O2 is nonpolar and blood is polar so little dissolves
What happens to the O2 that doesn't dissolve into blood?
98.5% of O2 gets bonded with Hb (hemoglobin) as HbO2 (oxyhemoglobin) inside RBCs
How much O2 can bind to Iron in Hemoglobin?
4 O2 can bind to 4 Fe (iron) atoms in Hb when fully saturated (at 98% at 105 mm of Hg)
How can more oxygen combing with Hemoglobin?
-The more oxygen present, the more it combines with hemoglobin
Bicarbonate Ions (HCO3)
2s- inspiration (duration)
connects to Diaphragm (to control it)
Connects to ribs
In the Aorta and Carotid bodies (pick up these levels)
In Bronchi and Bronchiole (body position)