176 notecards = 44 pages (4 cards per page)
Natural selection can be defined as ___.
Natural selection ___.
Which of the following statements about the voyage of the Beagle is true?
During his trip on the Beage, Darwin found that ___.
While on the Beagle, Darwin was influenced by a book by Charles Lyell that suggested that Earth was ___ and sculpted by geologic process that ___ today.
What did Darwin find in South America that suggested that the Andes mountains had been gradually lifted up over millions of years?
In the Origin of Species, Darwin argued that the mechanism of descent with modification was ___.
Which of the following is a component of the fossil record?
The oldest known fossils are from about ___ years ago.
Your family is taking a long driving vacation across the midwestern and western US. As you ponder why, you remember that such differences in the distribution of species are part of the field of ___.
Homology is evidence of ___.
Which of the following is a population?
Which of the following can create new alleles?
The original source of genetic variation that serves as the raw material for natural selection is
Which of the following is a characteristic of a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
Which of the following are homologous?
The similarity of the embryos of fish, frogs, birds, and humans is evidence of ___.
Which of the following statement is true?
Genetic drift is the result of ___
After surviving a bottleneck, a population recovers to the point where it consists of as many individuals as it did prior to the bottleneck. Which of the following statements is most likely to apply to this population?
The founder effect differs from a population bottleneck in that the founder effect ___.
Which of the following is the most likely explanation for a particular human population with a higher incidence of polydactyly than the human population as a whole?
What does evolutionary fitness measure?
Which of the following is an example of directional selection?
Which of the following is an example of disruptive selection?
Which of the following is most likely to decrease genetic variation?
Which of the following is an example of stabilizing selection?
When brought together in a zoo, two species are capable of mating and producing fertile offspring. Why may they still be considered two distinct species?
The biological species concept cannot be applied to ___.
A reproductive barrier that prevents species from mating is an example of ____.
What type of reproductive isolating mechanism is described by a situation in which female fireflies only mate with males who emit light in a particular pattern?
The type of reproductive barrier that occurs when two species mate but produce sterile hybrids is referred to as ___.
When two frog species mate the offspring die early in embryonic development. This is an example of ___.
Speciation requires ____.
Which of the following describes allopatric speciation?
Sympatric speciation specifically excludes ___.
Graphically, the graduated model of speciation can be described as appearing as a ___.
A pattern of evolution in which most change in appearance takes place during a relatively short period of time fits the ___ model of speciation.
Some fish have bony fins. If the body of water they are in dries out, these fins can be used to help the fish "walk" to another body of water.
Feathers in birds appear to have first evolved for insulation but later conveyed a new advantage in helping create light aerodynamic surfaces. This switch in function is an example of ___.
Which of the following would be an example of paedomorphosis?
The current geological era is the ___.
Plate tectonics has been responsible for instances of all of the following except
A period of mass extinction is often followed by ___.
The science of naming, identifying and classifying organisms is called ___.
Which of the following is a binomial>
Which of the following taxonomic levels is most inclusive?
Of the following taxonomic levels, species found within the same ___ are the most closely related.
The wing of a bald eagle is ___ the wing of a penguin.
The wing of a penguin is ___ the wing of a butterfly.
An ancestral species and all its evolutionary descendants define a ____.
Which of the following is the only domain that contains eukaryotes?
Eukaryotes arose about ___ years after the first prokarytoes.
Large amounts of oxygen gas appeared in Earths atmosphere about ___ years ago.
The first organisms to colonize land were
Which of the following is NOT true?
The idea that life regularly arises from nonliving matter is referred to as ___.
The absence of ___ in the primitive atmosphere was essential to the origin of life on Eath.
What was the first stage of the process that led to the abiotic origin of life?
Whose experiments demonstrated that, given the conditions of the primitive Earth, biological monomers could arise spontaneously?
Under what abiotic conditions can monomers spontaneously form polymers?
Why is RNA thought to have been the first genetic material?
Which prokaryotic group is most closely related to eukaryotes?
The prokaryotic group that tends to inhabit extreme environments belongs to the ___.
Which of the following prokaryotes aid digestion in cattle, deer, and other animals that obtain nutrition from cellulose?
Spherical bacteria that occur in clusters are ___.
Bacilli are ___ prokaryotes.
Which of the following would likely be the most difficult to kill were you to cap your own food?
Prokaryotes reproduce by means of ___.
You discover a prokaryote that can make its own food in the absence of light. You would classify this prokaryote as a ___.
All organisms that photosynthesize fit into which nutritional category?
Food poisoning from Salmonella occurs because of
___ is an example of bioremediation.
Eukaryotes that are not fungi, animals, or plants are classified in a "catch all" category called
According to the theory of endosymbiosis, which organelle evolved from small prokaryotes that established residence within other, larger prokaryotes?
Flagellates, amoebas, apicomplexans, and ciliates are all what type of protist?
You discover a unicellular organism that moves by what appear to be pseudopodia. You conclude that this organism is ___.
Which of the following are most closely related to plants?
___ are responsible for toxic red tides.
Which of the following is a colonial form of green algae?
Inward folds of the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell produced the ___ of eukaryotic cells.
What is the name given to the process by which a larva develop into an adult?
The common ancestor of all animals is likely to have a ___.
Which of these exhibits radial symmetry?
Flatworms are similar to cnidarians in that both ___.
Humans are chordates. Which animal group is most closely related to chordates?
How do sponges differ from all other animals?
___ have radial symmetry.
A ___ is an example of a mollusc that does not have a shell.
Which animals have a cylindrical body that is tapered at both ends?
There are more species of ___ than any other type of animal.
The arthropod skeleton is composed of ___
Nearly all ___ are aquatic.
___ are the most diverse group of arthropods.
What characteristic is unique to echinoderms?
Unique features of vertebrates include the presence of a ___.
Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates?
Sharks are a type of ___.
Swim bladders ___.
What does the term tetrapod mean?
The feature present in reptiles and absent in amphibians that feed reptiles from dependance on water for reproduction is ___.
Characteristics shared by both snakes and birds include ___.
Almost every element of bird anatomy is modified for what?
Features unique to mammals include ___.
___ are the mammalian group that lay eggs.
Which anthropoids are most clearly related to humans?
Where did humans first appear?
Ecology is the study of ___.
Which of the following is abiotic?
Which of these represents the correct hierarchial order?
What level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of the same species?
What level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of different species?
What is a population?
What level of ecology is concerned with both biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment?
Aquatic organisms ___.
Which of the following is a behavioral response to environmental variability?
Water-storing plants and deeply-rooted shrubs are plants that characterize ___.
The sahara desert and the negev desert belong to the same ___.
Long snowy winters as well as evergreen trees such as pine and fir are found in ___.
___ are the dominant herbivores of savanna ecosystems.
What is one important difference between savannas and temperate grasslands?
Which of these biomes is maintained by fire?
Permafrost, or permantently frozen subsoil, characterizes ___.
Most of the temperate grassland in NA has been converted to ___.
Water moves from land to atmosphere through ___.
The greenhouse effect causes an increase in global temps. This increase is primarily due to ___.
Temperatures increase due to global warming are expected to be greatest ___.
The effect of deforestation is to ___.
What is a population?
Which of these best describes type I survivorship?
Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit ___.
Which of these best describes type II survivorship?
Which of these best describes type III survivorship?
Opportunistic species typically ___.
The number of individuals of a population per unit area is the ___.
In the absence of limiting facts, what shape does a populations growth curve most closely resemble?
In a population that is following a logistic growth pattern, what shape does the populations growth curve most closely resemble?
___ is the maximum population size that a particular habitat can support.
Which of these factors operates in a density- dependent manner?
An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of ___.
The endangered species act aims to help protect species that ___.
Introduced species can have important effects on biological communities by ___.
A study of human ecological footprint shows that ___.
The ecological footprint of the US ___.
The single greatest threat to biodiversity comes from ___.
An example of a mutualism +/- relation is ___.
Populations of two coexisting species are both tertiary consumers in a community. What relationship may exist between these two organisms?
As a result of a disturbance, a community will ___.
Organisms at the first trophic level are ___.
In the food chain grass- antelope- human- lion- the antelope is
In the food chain grass- antelope- human- lion- the human is
Which of these organisms are ultimately responsible for making energy available to the other organisms listed here?
Which of these convert organic matter to inorganic matter by breaking down dead organisms?
Which of these could be a decomposer?
Bears eat berries, humans, and large fish; large fish eat smaller fish and insects; humans eat bears, large fish, berries; venus flytraps eat insects. The scenario described is an example of
Humans are ___.
What is one way in which energy flow differs from chemical cycling?
Approximately what percentage of the visible light that reaches earths producers is converted to chemical energy?
Biomass is the total amount of ___ an ecosystem.
The rate at which organic matter is produced is produced in an ecosystem is its ____.
On average, what percentage of the energy in the form of organic matter at one trophic level is not available as biomass at the next highest trophic level?
What form of carbon is incorporated into organic matter by producers?
The atmosphere is approximately 80& ___ gas.
Plants can utilize the ___form of nitrogen.
Which of these organisms convert atmospheric nitrogen gas to a form that can be utilized by plants?
With regard to nutrient pollution in aquatic ecosystems, when is the worst time to apply fertilizer to your lawn?
A movement corridor ___.
Movement corridors are ___.
Based on the relationship between plasmodium spp. and humans, these organisms would be considered ___.
Humans, mosquitoes, and plasmodium together would be considered ___.
Which of the following were likely important in the development of this resistance to quinine?
What most likely happened when the wolves first arrived on the island?
The virus introduced to the island in 1982 that reduced the wolf population
The harsh winter that led to the death of many moose in 1996 is an example of a ____.
Annelids are most closely related to ___.
Phytoplankton live in the ____.