51 notecards = 13 pages (4 cards per page)
43) Positive feedback has occurred when
45) To prepare flight muscles for use on a cool morning, hawkmouth moths
72) Which of the following would increase the rate of heat exchange between an animal and its environment?
2) Circulatory systems have the primary benefit of overcoming the shortcomings of
9) In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?
10) The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the
15) After several weeks of exercise, a human athlete's resting heart rate is typically lower than before because
26) Among the following choices, which organism likely has the highest systolic pressure?
27) Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are associated with
37) The diagnosis of hypertension in adults is based on the
82) A group of students was designing an experiment to test the effect of smoking on grass frogs. They hypothesized that keeping the frogs in a smoke-filled environment for defined periods would result in the animals developing lung cancer. However, when they searched for previously published information to shore up their hypothesis, they discovered they were quite wrong in their original assessment. Even though they were never going to go ahead with their experiment (so as not to harm frogs needlessly), they knew that a more likely outcome of putting carcinogens in the air would be the development of
85) Pulse is a direct measure of
86) When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to breathe?
53) Winter hibernation and spring reproduction in bears are cued by seasonal changes in the secretion of
61) Estradiol is an example of
62) Epinephrine is an example of
67) Among these contraception methods, the highest risk of accidental pregnancy accompanies
87) Which of the following characterizes parthenogenesis?
3) The nucleus and most of the organelles in a neuron are located in the
6) The point of connection between two communicating neurons is called
7) In a simple synapse, neurotransmitter chemicals are released by
8) In a simple synapse, neurotransmitter chemicals are received by
12) The operation of the sodium-potassium "pump" moves
31) Saltatory conduction is a term applied to
33) Neurotransmitters are released from axon terminals via
36) One possible disadvantage to a nerve net is that it might conduct impulses in two directions from the point of the stimulus. Most of the synapses in vertebrates conduct information in only one direction
40) The following steps refer to various stages in transmission at a chemical synapse:
41) The activity of acetylcholine in a synapse is terminated by
42) Adjacent neurons with direct (non-neurotransmitter) action potential transfer are said to have electrical synapses, based on the presence of
43) Ionotropic receptors are found at synapses operated via
46) Neurotransmitters categorized as inhibitory are expected to
47) When several EPSPs arrive at the axon hillock from different dendritic locations, depolarizing the postsynaptic cell to threshold for an action potential, this is an example of
48) When several IPSPs arrive at the axon hillock rapidly in sequence from a single dendritic location, hyperpolarizing the postsynaptic cell more and more and thus preventing an action potential, this is an example of
50) Receptors for neurotransmitters are of primary functional importance in assuring one-way synaptic transmission because they are mostly found on the
51) Functionally, which cellular location is the neuron's "decision-making site" as to whether or not an action potential will be initiated?
52) Neurotransmitters affect postsynaptic cells by
57) An amino acid that operates at inhibitory synapses in the brain is
66) Action potentials are normally carried in only one direction: from the axon hillock toward the axon terminals. If you experimentally depolarize the middle of the axon to threshold, using an electronic probe, then
71) Temporal summation always involves
2) The central nervous system is lacking in animals that have
18) The activation of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is associated with
22) The system that modulates excitation and inhibition of smooth and cardiac muscles of the digestive, cardiovascular, and excretory systems is the
26) Bottlenose dolphins breathe air but can sleep in the ocean because
27) The limbic system in the central nervous system sustains many vegetative functions in mammals and is closely associated with structures that process cues about
34) The regulation of body temperature derives from the activity of the
37) Which processes in animals are regulated by circadian rhythms?
51) Bipolar disorder is similar to schizophrenia in that researchers suspect that both include trouble with the neurotransmitter
52) Bipolar disorder differs from schizophrenia in that
63) The cerebral cortex plays a major role in all of the following except
65) Injury localized to the hypothalamus would most likely disrupt