139 notecards = 35 pages (4 cards per page)
which function of the reproductive system is solely a function of the female reproductive system?
d. development and nourishment of a new individual
what are the female gametes?
the location of the testes and epidiymides in the scrotum
c. provides a temperature that is suitable for normal sperm development
contraction of the cremaster and dartos muscles
c. pull the testes closer to the body
optimum temperature for sperm production is 3 degrees cooler than body temperature. in which of the following locations would the testes produce the most sperm?
a. scrotal sac
which of the following structures is located with the perineum?
d. urogenital triangle
Sperm are produced in the
c. seminiferous tubules
the thick white capsule that covers each testes is called the
c. tunica albuginea
which of the following hormones is produced by the testis?
the interstitial cells or Leydig cells
e. secrete testosterone
the opening in the abdominal wall through which he testes descend is the
c. inguinal canal
male infants can be born with an undescended testis. this means that the testis
d. remains in the abdominopelvic cavity
the sustentacular cells
c. provide nourishment for development of sperm
the blood-testis barrier
d. isolates sperm cells from the immune system
which of the following substances found in sustentacular cells may be the active hormones that promote sperm cell formation?
c. dihydrotestosterone and estrogen
which of the following cell types is formed at the end of the first meiotic division?
d. secondary spermatocyte
which of the following cell types is diploid?
c. primary spermatocyte
what process converts a spermatid to a mature sperm cell?
what structure contains enzymes needed by a sperm to penetrate an oocyte?
which of the following structures would be found in the spermatic cord?
b. ductus defernes
which portion of the sperm cell is most involved with penetration of the female sex cell?
sperm are produced in the ____ and complete maturation in the ____
d. seminiferous tubules, epididymis
a primary spermatocyte is a diploid cell that gives rise to two secondary spermatocytes after the first meiotic division. the primary speratocyte has
b. 46 chromosomes
which of the following is mismatched?
d. stereocilia-forms sperm tails
smooth muscle contractions help to propel sperm in the
b. ductus deferens
the duct from the seminal vesicle joins the ductus deferens to form the
d. ejaculatory duct
arrange the following structures in the order sperm would pass through them from the seminiferous tubules to the urethra
e. 5, 2, 3, 1, 4
the ductus deferens
d. passes through the inguinal canal and enters the pelvic cavity
the male urethra
b. extends through the length of the penis
in males, both urine and male reproductive fluids travel through
circumcision is the surgical removal of the
erection of the penis occurs when
d. penile erectile tissue becomes engorged with blood
the spongy urethra is surrounded by the
c. corpus spongiosum
which of the following statements is false
a. the seminal vesicles open into the membranous urethra
the accessory glands located near the membranous urethra are the
c. bulbourethral glands
c. sperm cells plus the secretions of accessory glands
most of the seminal fluid is produced
b. by the seminal vesicles
discharge of semen into the prostatic urethra is called
the forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra caused by contraction of smooth muscle in the urethra and skeletal muscle surrounding the base of the penis is called
which of the following glands is correctly matched with its function
a. seminal vesicles- provide nutrients for sperm
given the following glands, choose the arrangement that represents the order in which the glands release their secretions to form semen.
c. 3, 1, 2
which of the following substances found in semen is mismatched with its function
d. prostaglandins- cause urethral contractions
the longest portion of the male urethra is
c. spongy urethra
the penis consists of ____ columns of erectile tissue
which of the following is mismatched
b. corpora cavernosa- forms the foreskin
which of the following substances are found in the secretions of the prostate gland?
c. fibrinolysin and clotting factors
the secretions produced by the prostate gland
d. constitute about 30% of the semen
a blood test for the prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is useful in the diagnosis of
c. prostatic cancer
a pituitary tumor interferes with FSH secretion. how could the effect a male?
b. he would not produce sperm
Luteinizing hormone (LH) binds to interstitial cells and
e. increases testosteorne production by the Leydig cells
a lack of testosterone production before birth would
a. inhibit normal development of male reproductive structures
once GnRH is released from the hypothalamus and enters the hypothalamohypophysial portal system
d. FSH and LH secretion will occur
which of the following hormones stimulates the synthesis of testosterone by the fetal testes?
a. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
what is the active hormone in target tissues of testosterone such as the penis
the major factor controlling the onset of puberty in males is
d. the hypothalamus becoming less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of androgens
which of the following statements concerning testosterone is true?
c. it can lead to an increase in muscle mass
which of the following effects on the body can not be attributed to testosterone
d. increased calcium excretion
which of the following is not an age-related change in the male reproductive system?
d. decline of sperm production until no more sperm are produced
which of the following is not an age-related change of the female reproductive system?
d. decreased incidence of breast cancer
the contraceptive method in which the penis is removed from the vagina just before ejaculation is called
c. coitus interruptus
the contraceptive method that not only prevents fertilization but also provides protection against sexually transmitted disease is
a. the condom
which of the following can cause infertility in femaleS?
c. blockage of the uterine tubes
in an ectopic pregnancy,
b. implantation does not occur in the uterus
the female climacteric refers to the
b. time from the onset of irregular menstrual cycles to cessation of those cycles
hot flashes during the climacteric are thought to be results of decreased ____ levels
c. estrogen and progesterone
which of the following hormones is detected by over-the-counter pregnancy kits?
d. human chorionic gonadotropin
b. normally occurs in the uterus
fertilization usually occurs in the _____ while fetal development occurs in the ______
b. uterine tube, uterus
the corpus luteum
e. degenerates into the corpus alibicans if pregnancy does not occur, is absolutely necessary during the first three months of pregnancy, and produces mostly progesterone, but also some estrogen
the placenta produces both
a. estrogen and progesterone
the ovum is viable for _____ hours following ovulation
spermatozoa may remain viable in the female reproductive tract for as long as
e. 144 hours
fertilization can only occur
b. when a sperm cell penetrates a secondary oocyte
during the female sex act,
a. the clitoris becomes engorged with blood
sexual drives in females
d. is dependent on hormones, can be affected by psychological factors, is influenced by androgens that affect the hypothalamus
assume a couple has just completed intercourse and sperm have been deposited in the woman's reproductive tract. trace the pathway of the sperm through the female reproductive tract to the point where fertilization will most likely occur
b. 4, 1, 3, 2
normally, menstruation occurs when
e. blood levels of both female hormones decrease rapidly
menstrual cramps are most commonly caused by
increased prostaglandin secretions
which of the following statements is false?
rising progesterone levels cause the myometrium to contract
which of the following events happens after ovulation?
a negative feedback effect on GnRH
d. causes cellular hypertrophy in the endometrium
during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, you would normally expect
c. the highest levels of progesterone that occur during the menstrual cycle
the gradual increase in estrogen secretion during the follicular phase is the result of
b. granulosa cells coverting androgens to estrogen
which of the listed evens occurs last?
c. ovulation occurs
the hormone hCG is necessary to
d. keep the corpus luteum from degenerating
b. primarily effects granulosa cells
FSH can make the follicle cells more sensitive to LH by increasing
c. LH receptors
the androgens produced by the theca interna cells are converted to estrogen by
c. granulosa cells
shortly after ovulation,
a. the granulosa cells become corpus luteum cells
the hypothalamic hormone that regulates both male and female reproductive cycles is
which of the following events is caused by LH?
a. stimulation of the theca interna cells to produce androgens
one hormone responsible for initiating the development of follicles
the LH surge initiates
which of the following events in the menstrual cycle occur at the same time?
d. uterine wall begins to thicken and increased estrogen production by the follicles
the average menstrual cycle is about ____ days long; ovulation occurs on about day ___
b. 28; 14
the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by
b. rapid development of ovarian follicles
the menstrual cycle can be divided into three continuous phases. starting from the first day of the cycle, their consecutive order is
a. menses, proliferative, secretory
which of the following statements concerning the female mammary glands is true?
e. all of these choices are correct
puberty in a female is characterized by
a. fat deposition in the breasts and around the hips
menarche refers to
d. the first episode of menstrual bleeding
both the vagina and the urethra open into a space called the
the secretory sacs of the mammary glands are known as the
frequently during childbirth, an episiotomy is performed. in this procedure the ____ is cut
which of the following is a function of the vagina?
b. reception of penis during intercourse
which of the following portions of the vulva is most superior?
b. mons pubis
which of the following pairs is mismatched?
d. mons pubis- vaginal orfice
which of the following statements concerning the uterine tube is true?
b. the oocyte is moved along the tube by peristaltic contractions of the muscular layer
the layer of the uterine wall that is shed during menstruation is the
which of the following pairs is correctly matched?
b. broad ligaments- helps support the uterus
trace the pathway of an egg as it passes through the uterine tube
d. 2, 3, 1, 4,
a pap test is used to detect
c. cervical cancer
the cervix is a portion of the
the corpus luteum is a gland that
e. forms from a Graafian follicle after ovulation and secretes mainly progesterone
which of the following follicular stages is the last to appear?
a. corpus albicans
which of the following statements concerning the uterus is true?
a. the inferior portion is the cervix
fertilization occurs when the
d. nuclei of the secondary oocyte and the sperm cell unite
zygote is the term used to describe the
d. fertilized oocyte
follicles in the ovary that are never ovulated
a. undergo atersia
the release of the secondary oocyte from the ovary is called
which of the following is produced in the ovary and then leaves the ovary?
c. secondary oocyte
the secondary oocyte completes the second meiotic division when
b. it is penetrated by a sperm cell
as a secondary follicle enlarges
c. a theca or capsule is formed around it
in a mature follicle, the oocyte lies in a mass of follicular cells called the
d. cumulus mass
a follicle containing a secondary oocyte and a single fluid filled antrum is called a ____ follicle
b. Graafian or mature
of the two million primary oocytes in the ovaries at birth, only about ____ are ovulated
a primary oocyte with a single layer of granulosa cells is most appropriately called
a. a primordial follicle
a primary follicle contains
c. several layers of granulosa cells
the ovaries and uterus are held in position within the pelvis by bands of tissue called
the ovary is attached to the superior margin of the uterus by the
c. ovarian ligament
the ovary is surronded by a capsule of fibrous connective tissue called the
b. tunica albuginea
arrange the following events in correct sequence
which of the following events in the male sex act occurs last and results in ejaculation?
b. contractions of skeletal muscle at the base of the penis
what is the role of NO (nitric oxide) in the male sex act?
a. dilation of blood vessels in the penis
which of the following events occurs in an erection?
b. engorgement of erectile tissue of penis with blood
impotence occurs when
c. an erection cannot be achieved or maintained
arrange the following events in the correct sequence
which of the following hormones would decrease if an adult male were castrated?
following ejaculation, a phase called resolution occurs. during resolution
b. a feeling of satisfaction occurs
erection and ejaculation can be initiated by
a. manual stimulation of the penis