38 notecards = 10 pages (4 cards per page)
To calculate the human population density of your community, you would need to know the number of people living there and _____.
A)the size of the area in which they live
Which choice below is an example of an expression of population density?
C)the number of Paramecium caudatum in a 250-mL solution in a glass flask
When needed resources are unevenly distributed, organisms often show a(n) _____ dispersion pattern.
Organisms that live in a homogenous abiotic environment and cooperate to avoid being eaten would likely show a(n) _____ pattern of dispersion.
Herring gulls fiercely defend the areas around their nests in cliff-top breeding colonies. Within the colony they would show a _____ dispersion pattern.
Pine trees in a forest tend to shade and kill pine seedlings that sprout nearby. This causes the pine trees to _____.
C)grow in a uniform pattern
A demographer may study _____.
E)All of the listed responses are correct.
Life tables typically follow the fate of a cohort, a _____.
E)group of individuals who are the same age
An oak tree produces thousands of acorns, but very few grow into mature oak trees. The oak tree exhibits a _____ survivorship curve.
Chimpanzees have a relatively low birth rate. They care for their young, and most chimps live a long life. The chimp survivorship curve would look like _____.
B)a relatively flat line that drops steeply at the end
Which of the following describes the distribution of survivorship or mortality for a population that has a Type II survivorship curve?
E)The chance of death is roughly constant over all ages.
Kingfish, Louisiana, had a population of 1,100 individuals. They had a birth rate of 12/100, a death rate of 8/100, and an emigration (individuals leaving the population) rate of 2/100. How many people were added to Kingfish's population in one year?
Using the data in question 12 above, what was the per capita rate of increase, including emigration, for this year in Kingfish?
When the per capita birth rate equals the per capita death rate, _____.
B)the size of a population remains constant
A population will always grow exponentially _____.
C)if there are no limiting factors
Which of the following populations probably exhibits exponential growth?
B)a fruit fly population that recently arrived on a lush mid-oceanic island previously inhabited only by plants
No population can grow indefinitely. The ultimate size of any population is limited by _____.
D)the carrying capacity of its environment
A newly mated queen ant founds a nest in an unoccupied patch of suitable habitat. Assuming that no disasters strike the nest, which of the following types of equations is likely to best describe the population growth of the new colony?
In an equilibrium population (at its carrying capacity), thousands of eggs and hundreds of tadpoles are produced by a single pair of frogs. On average, about how many offspring per pair will live to reproduce?
A wildlife biologist is trying to predict what will happen to a bear population if bear hunting is banned. He had the equations all worked out but then realized that he had grossly underestimated the amount of food available to the bears. To make his prediction more accurate he should _____ the value of _____ in his equation. (Consider food to be a factor that limits the size of the bear population.)
D)increase ... K
Assuming that r has a positive value, in the formula dN/dt = rmaxN(K - N)/K, the factor rN tends to cause the population to _____.
A)grow increasingly rapidly
A population that grows rapidly at first and then levels off at carrying capacity can be modeled _____.
A)by a logistic equation
A population that is growing logistically _____.
C)grows fastest at an intermediate population density
The logistic growth model differs from the exponential growth model in that it _____.
A)expresses the effects of population-limiting factors on exponential growth
Which sentence below summarizes the Allee effect?
B)Individuals have a more difficult time surviving or reproducing if the population size is too small.
A variety of opossum that lives on an island with no predators lives much longer than its relatives on the mainland, even when both are kept safely in a zoo. The island variant's genes have been selected for slow aging, whereas the mainland variant's genes have been selected for quick reproduction. The island opossum exhibits _____ selection, and the mainland opossum exhibits _____ selection.
B)K ... r
What are three basic issues that life histories entail?
D)when reproduction begins, how often the organism breeds, and how many offspring are produced during each reproductive episode
A dog gives birth to three puppies one year. Three years later, she gives birth to six puppies. Which type of life history pattern is characteristic of this organism?
Although there are organisms whose life histories fall somewhere between iteroparity and semelparity, life history always represents a trade-off. Why is this?
B)The energy cost of reproduction is high, so there are not enough resources to reproduce often, produce many offspring, and take care of them.
Which of the following would most likely be an example of a density-independent factor limiting population growth?
E)daily temperature extremes
A certain species of seal breeds and rears its young on rocky beaches. Competition for breeding sites is fierce, and males that do not secure a site will not reproduce. This behavior is an example of which mechanism of density-dependent population regulation?
A particular environmental change causes the deaths of 25 individuals in a herd of 100 wild horses, and it kills 50 individuals in a herd of 200 horses. In this case, the growth of a wild horse population is most likely limited by _____. (Assume that the two herds are found in territories of equal size.)
A)a density-dependent factor
Which of the following is most likely a density-dependent growth regulator of animal populations?
A)a decrease in clutch size
The cyclic growth exhibited by populations of snowshoe hares in the North American taiga most likely results from _____.
C)predation by lynx and fluctuations in the hare's food resources
If you wanted to determine what percentage of the population of Thailand is less than 10 years old, you could look at _____.
B)the population's age structure
An ecologist would suspect a population to be growing rapidly if it.
A)contains many more prereproductive than reproductive individuals
What absolutely essential resource is likely to limit the carrying capacity of Earth for humans?
To calculate the _____ of a nation, researchers summarize arable land, pasture, fossil energy land, and several other factors appropriated by each nation to produce all of the resources it consumes and to absorb all the waste it generates.