43 notecards = 11 pages (4 cards per page)
What are the two major functions of the testes?
The two major functions of the testes is to sperm and testosterone
Which of the tubular structures are the sperm “factories”?
The sperm factories are the seminiferous tubules
Muscle activity and the pampiniform venous plexus help to keep testicular temperature at homeostatic levels. How do they do that?
When the outside temperature is cold, the associate muscles contract, bringing the testes closer to the warm body. When body temperatures are high, the associated muscles relax, allowing the testes to hang away from the body.
What is the function of the erectile tissue of the penis?
The erectile tissue of the penis allows the penis to become stiff so it can more effiently enter the vagina to dliver sperm.
Name the organs of the male duct system in order, from the to the body exterior.
The male duct system in order, from the to the body exterior are the ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, prostatic urethra, intermediate part of the urethra, and the spongy part of the urethra.
What are two functions of the stereocilia on the epididymal epithelium?
The two functions of the stereocilia are to pass nutrients to the sperm and absorb excess testicular fluid.
Which accessory organ of the male duct system runs from the scrotum into the abdominal cavity?
The ductus deferens runs from the scrotum into the abdominal cavity.
Adolph, a 68-year-old gentleman, has trouble urinating and is scheduled for a rectal exam. What is his most probable condition and what is the purpose of the rectal exam?
Adolph probally has hypertrophied prostate, a condition that can be felt from the anterior wall of the rectum.
Which glandular accessory organ produces the largest proportion of semen?
The seminal glands produces the largest proportion of semen.
What is semen?
Semen is sperm plus the secretion of the male accessory organ
What is erection and what division of the ANS regulates it?
An erection is the stiffening of the penis that occurs when blood in the cavernous tissue is prevented from leaving the penis. It is regulated by parasympathetic division of the ANS
What occurs during resolution and what is the result?
Resolution is a period of muscular and psychological relaxation that follows orgasm. It results as the sympathetic nervous system causes constriction of the internal prudendal arteries, reducing blood flow to the penis, and activating small muscles that force blood out of the penis.
How is the final product of meiosis different from that of mitosis?
Meiosis reduces the chromosomal count from 2n to n and introduces variability
Describe the major structural and functional regions of a sperm.
The sperm head is the compacted DNA-containing nucleus.
What is the role of sustentacular cells? Of interstitial cells?
Sustentocytes provides nutrients and essential development signals to the developing sperm and form the blood testis barrier that prevents sperm antigens from escaping into the blood. Interstitial endocrine cells secrete testosterone.
What is the HPG axis?
The HPG axis is the hormonal interrelationship between the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and gonads that regulates the production of gametes and sex hormones
How does FSH indirectly stimulate spermatogenesis?
Follicle-stimulating hormone indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis by prompting sustentocytes to secrete androgen-binding protein. Androgen-binding protein keeps the concentration of testosterone high in the vicinity of spermatogenic cells, which indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis.
What are three secondary sex characteristics promoted by testosterone?
Secondary sex characteristics promoted by testosterone are appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair, deepening of the voice, increased oiliness of the skin, and increased size of bones and skeletal muscles.
Briefly, what are the internal genitalia of a woman?
The internal genitalia of a woman include ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus and vagina
What two roles do the ovaries assume?
The two roles of the ovaries are producing female gametes and secrete female sex hormones.
How does a primary follicle differ from a secondary follicle? From a vesicular follicle?
The antrum is the fluid filled cavity of a mature follicle.
Why are women more at risk for PID than men?
Women are at more risk for PID because their duct system is incomplete – there is no physical connection between the ovary and the fallopian tubes.
Oocytes are ovulated into the peritoneal cavity and yet women do get pregnant. What action of the uterine tubes helps to direct the oocytes into the woman’s duct system?
The waving action of the fimbriae and currents created by the beating cilia help to direct the ovulated oocytes into the fallopian tubes.
What portion of the female duct system is the usual site of fertilization? Which is the “incubator” for fetal development?
The fallopian tubes are the usual site of fertilization in the female duct system. The uterus is the incubator for fetal development.
What is the female homologue of the bulbourethral glands of males?
The greater vestibular glands are the female homologue of the male bulbo-urethral glands
Cite similarities and differences between the penis and clitoris.
Both the penis and clitoris are hooded by a skin fold and are largely a erectile tissue, however the clitoris lacks a corpus spongiosum containing a urethra, so the urinary and reproductive systems are completely separate in women
Developmentally, mammary glands are modifications of certain skin glands. Which type?
Developmentally, mammary glands are modified sweat glands
From what cell types does breast cancer usually arise?
breast cancer usually arises from the epithelial cells of the small ducts
How do the haploid cells arising from oogenesis differ structurally and functionally from those arising from spermato genesis?
The products of meiosis in females are three polar bodies (tiny haploids cells with no cytoplasm) and one haploid ovum. Meiosis in males produces four functional gametes, the haploid sperm.
How do identical twins differ developmentally from fraternal twins?
Identical twins develop from separation of a very young embryo (the result of fertilization of a single sperm and egg). Fraternal twins develop from separate oocytes and separate sperm.
What occurs in the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?
In the luteal phase, the ovulated follicle develops into a corpus luteum, which then secretes progesterone and some estrogen.
What hormone plays an important role in “letting the brain know” that puberty may occur in girls?
Leptin plays an important role in “letting the brain know” that a girls is ready for puberty
What hormone(s) prompt follicle growth? What hormone prompts ovulation?
FSH prompt follicle growth and LH prompts ovulation.
What gonadal hormone exerts positive feedback on the anterior pituitary that results in a burstlike release of LH?
Estrogen exerts positive feedback on the anterior pituitary that results in a burstlike release of LH
Which gonadal hormone causes the secondary sex characteristics to appear in a young woman?
Estrogen is responsible for the secondary sex characteristics to appear in young women
What gonadal hormone promotes epiphyseal closure in both males and females?
Estrogen promotes epiphyseal closure in both males and females.
Which pathogen is most associated with cervical cancer?
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is most associated with cervical cancer
What is the most common bacterial STI in the United States?
Chlamydia is the most common bacterial STI in the United States
If the fertilized egg contains X and Y sex chromosomes, a baby girl will develop, right?
False if the fertilized egg contains X and Y sex chromosomes, a baby boy will develop.
What is the sexually indifferent stage of development?
The early period when the presumptive reproductive structures can produce either male or female organs is the sexually indifferent stage of development
What structure guides the descent of the testis into the scrotum?
The glubernaculum guides the descent of the testis into the scrotum
What are the early signs of puberty’s onset in boys?
Enlargement of the testes and scrotum are the early signs of puberty’s onset in boys
What is the definition of menopause?
Menopause has occurred when there has been no menstruation for one year.