30 notecards = 8 pages (4 cards per page)
how did Democrat John F. Kennedy and Republican Richard Nixon change American politics forever?
-on September 26, 1960 they participated in the 1st of 4 live televised debates
who was Kennedy before his presidency?
-a Massachusetts Democrat, served in House of Reps and Senate for 14 years, followed distinguished service in the U.S. Navy in WWI
how was Kennedy different from past presidents?
-only 43 years old, many questioned if has experience needed for nation's highest office
what did Kennedy promise during his campaign?
-to spur the sluggish economy (during last years of Eisenhower administration GNP had grown very slowly, economy suffered several recessions)
who ran with Kennedy in the presidential election of 1960?
-Lyndon Baines Johnson
as a result of the very close victory for Kennedy in 1960:
-that the Democrats won Illinois (where Nixon could of won by a few thousand) through fraud
public endorsement of a president's proposals
referred to Kennedy's proposals to improve the economy, assist the poor, and speed up the space program
Kennedy hoped to work with business leaders to _________________, but he often faced _____________
-promote economic growth
-what happened in the spring of 1962 in relation to the steel industry?
-U.S. Steel Company raised steel price by $6 a ton & other firms followed
what was the longer effect of the occurrences with the steel industry in the spring of 1962?
-business leaders remained angry, stock market fell in its steepest drop since Great Crash of 1929
-what did Kennedy propose to help end the economic slump in 1962?
-in 1963 he proposed a large tax cut over three years
Kennedy was also eager to take action against _____________, in his first two years in office he hoped that he could help the poor simply by _________
-poverty and inequality
-wrote "The Other America" which revealed that while many Americans were enjoying the prosperity of 50s, 1/5 of population living below poverty line
What happened to Kennedy's legislation in Congress?
-his most ambitious plans for federal education aid and medical care for the elderly both failed
Housing Act of 1961
provided #4.9 billion for urban renewal
outlawed the poll tax
Equal Pay Act
-passed June 1963
how did Kennedy seek to achieve his goals through executive orders?
-including orders on providing equal opportunity in housing and establishing an expanded program of food distribution to needy families
list the things other acts in Kennedy's presidency did (13):
1.an executive order provided high-quality surplus food to unemployed Americans, 2.the larges fastest defense buildup in peacetime history & Kennedy boosted missile program, 3.an Area Redevelopment law helps communities plagues with long-term unemployment, 4.changes in Social Security extend benefits to 5 mil allowing Americans to retire & collect benefits at 62, 5.law doubling fed resources to combat water pollution, 6.creation of National Seashore Parks, part of National Park System, 7.expansion & increase of min. wage, 8. creation of 1st fed program to address juvenile delinquency, 9.changes in welfare system aimed at helping ailing families instead of encouraging dependency on gov benefits, 10.construction of world's largest nuclear power plant in Hanford, Washington, 11.tighten food & drug laws to protect against untested drugs, 12.sign a Trade Expansion act to reduce American protectionism & encourage free trade 13.signing of Nuclear Test ban Treaty 1st nuclear weapons agreement
was Kennedy successful in his effort to breathe life unto the space program?
what had Americans been doing following S.U's Sputnik satellite in 1957?
-gov agencies & private industries had been working furiously with NASA to place manned spacecraft in orbit round Earth
what happened in April 1961 in terms of space exploration?
-SU announced that Yuri Gagarin circled Earth on board spacecraft Vostok becoming 1st human to travel in space
May 5, 1961, U.S. attempt to send man to space
-Astronaut Alan Shepard made 15 min flight that reached altitude of 115 miles but didn't orbit Earth
what did the success of Alan Shepard's space flight convince Kennedy to do?
-success convinced Kennedy to issue challenge (May 25): to land person on moon
who was the 1st American to orbit Earth?
-Feb 20,1962: John Glenn completed 3 orbits
When did NASA finally meet Kennedy's challenge?
-June 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong 1st man on the moon
What was Kennedy doing in Texas right before he got assassinated?
-Nov 22, 1963 he was looking ahead to the reelection campaign the next year & went to Texas to mobilize support, he rode in downtown Dallas in and open limousine in a parade with Texas governor
what was the national response to Kennedy's assassination?
-appointed by President Johnson November 29 (aka The President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy) known after its chairman Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren