29 notecards = 8 pages (4 cards per page)
The Lowest blood concentration of nitrogenous waste occurs in the
The Glomerular capillaries differ from other capillary networks in the body because they
B)are derived from & drain into the arterioles
Damage to the renal medulla would interfere first with the functioning of the
Which reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule cells
D)All of the above
Glucose is not normally found in urine because it
C)is reabsorbed by the tubule cells
Filtration at the glomerulus is inversely related to
B)Capsular hydrostatic pressure
A)Of glucose and many substances is a Tm-limited active transport process
If a freshly voided urine sample contains excessive amounts of urochrome, it has
C)A dark yellow color
Conditions such as diabetes mellitus and starvation are closely linked
Which of the following is true about ADH?
B)It is secreted in response to an increase in extra cellular fluid osmolarity
What is the importance of the perirenal fat capsule that surrounds the kidney?
The perineal fat capsule helps to hold the kidney in place against the posterior trunk wall and cushions it against blows
Trace the pathway a creatinine molecule takes from the glomerulus to the urethra. Name every microscopic of gross structure it passes through on its journey.
A creatine molecule travels the following route from a glomerulus to the urethra. It first passes through the glomerular filtration membrane, which is a porous membrane made up of a fenestrated capillary endothelium, a thin basement membrane, and the visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule formed by the podocytes. The creatine molecule then passes through the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule, and into the collecting duct in which it travels into the medulla through the renal pyramids. From the medulla the molecule enters the renal pelvis, and leaves the kidney via the ureter. Then it travels to the urinary bladder and then to the urethra.
Explain the important differences between blood plasma and glomerular filtrate, and relate the differences to the structure of the filtration membrane
Renal filtrate is a solute-rich fluid without blood cells or plasma proteins because the filtration membrane is permeable to water and all solutes smaller than plasma proteins. The capillary endothelium restricts passage of formed elements, whereas the anion-rich basement membrane holds back most protein and some smaller anionic molecules.
Describe the mechanisms that contribute to renal autoregulation
The mechanisms that contribute to renal autoregulation are the myogenic mechanism and the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism. The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to contract when it is stretched. An increase in systemic blood pressure causes afferent arterioles to constrict, which impedes blood flow into the glomerulus and prevents glomerular blood pressure from rising to damaging levels. Conversely, a decline in systemic blood pressure causes dilation of afferent arterioles and an increase in glomerular hydrostatic pressure. Both responses help maintain a normal GFR.
Describe the mechanisms of extrinsic regulation of GFR, and their psychological role
Sympathetic nervous system controls protect the body during extreme stress by redirecting blood to more vital organs. Strong sympathetic stimulation causes release of norepinephrine to alpha-adrenergic receptors, causing strong vasoconstriction of kidney arterioles. This results in a drop in glomerular filtration, and indirectly stimulates another extrinsic mechanism, the renin-angiotensin mechanism. The renin-angiotensin mechanism involves the release of renin from the granular juxtaglomerular cells, which enzymatically converts the plasma globulin angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is further converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) produced by capillary endothelium. Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction of systemic arterioles, increased sodium reabsorption by promoting the release of aldosterone, decreases peritubular hydrostatic pressure, which encourages increased fluid and solute reabsorption, and acts on the glomerular mesangial cells, causing a decrease in glomerular filtration rate. In addition, angiotensin II results in stimulation of the hypothalamus, which activates the thirst mechanism and promotes the release of antidiuretic hormone, which causes increased water reabsorption in the distal nephron. Other factors that may trigger the renin-angiotensin mechanism are a drop in mean systemic blood pressure below 80 mm Hg, and activated macula densa cells responding to low plasma sodium.
Describe what is involved in active and passive tubular reabsorption
In active tubular reabsorption, substances are usually moving against electrical and/or chemical gradients. The substances usually move from the filtrate into the tubule cells by secondary active transport coupled to Na+ transport and move across the basolateral membrane of the tubule cell into the interstitial space by diffusion. Most such processes involve cotransport with sodium.
Explain how the peritubular capillaries are adapted for receiving reabsorbed substances
The peritubular capillaries are low-pressure, porous capillaries that readily absorb solutes and water from the tubule cells. They arise from the efferent arteriole draining the glomerulus
Explain the process and purpose of tubular secretion
Tubular secretion is important for the following reasons: (a) disposing of substances not already in the filtrate; (b) eliminating undesirable substances that have been reabsorbed by passive processes; (c) ridding the body of excessive potassium ions; and (d) controlling blood pH. Tubular secretion moves materials from the blood of the peritubular capillaries through the tubule cells or from the tubule cells into the filtrate.
How does aldosterone modify the chemical composition of urine?
Aldosterone modifies the chemical composition of urine by enhancing sodium ion reabsorption so that very little leaves the body in urine.
Explain why the filtrate becomes hypotonic as it flows through the ascending limb of the loop of henle. Also explain why the filtrate at the bend of the nephron loop (and interstitial fluid of the deep portions of the medulla) is hypertonic.
of Henle, the filtrate becomes hypotonic because it is impermeable to water, and because sodium and chloride are being actively pumped into the interstitial fluid, thereby decreasing solute concentration in the tubule. The interstitial fluid at the tip of the loop of Henle and the deep portions of the medulla are hypertonic because:
How does urinary bladder anatomy supportits storage function
The bladder is very distensible. An empty bladder is collapsed and has rugae. Expansion of the bladder to accommodate increased volume is due to the ability of the transitional epithelial cells lining the interior of the bladder to slide across one another, thinning the mucosa, and the ability of the detrusor muscle to stretch.
Define micturition and describe the micturition reflex.
Micturition is the act of emptying the bladder. The micturition reflex is activated when distension of the bladder wall activates stretch receptors. Afferent impulses are transmitted to the sacral region of the spinal cord and efferent impulses return to the bladder via the parasympathetic pelvic splanchnic nerves, causing the detrusor muscle to contract and the internal sphincter to relax.
Describe the changes that occur in kidney and bladder anatomy and physiology in old age.
In old age the kidneys become smaller, the nephrons decrease in size and number, and the tubules become less efficient. By age 70, the rate of filtrate formation is only about one half that of middle-aged adults. This slowing is believed to result from impaired renal circulation caused by arteriosclerosis. The bladder is shrunken, with less than half the capacity of a young adult. Problems of urine retention and incontinence occur.
•Diuretics will remove water from the blood and eliminate it in the urine. Consequently, water will move from the peritoneal cavity into the bloodstream reducing her ascites.
A fracture at the lumbar region will stop the impulses to the brain, so there will be no voluntary control of micturition and he will never again feel the urge to void. There will be no dribbling of urine between voidings as long as the internal sphincter is undamaged. Micturition will be triggered in response to bladder stretch by a reflex arc at the sacral region of the spinal cord as it is in an infant.
Cystitis is bladder inflammation. Women are more frequent cystitis sufferers than men because the female urethra is very short and its external orifice is closer to the anal opening. Improper toilet habits can carry fecal bacteria into the urethra
Hattie has a renal calculus, or kidney stone, in her ureter. Predisposing conditions are frequent bacterial infections of the urinary tract, urinary retention, high concentrations of calcium in the blood, and alkaline urine. Her pain comes in waves because waves of peristalsis pass along the ureter at intervals. The pain results when the ureter walls close in on the sharp kidney stone during this peristalsis.
The use of spermicides in females kills many helpful bacteria, allowing infectious fecal bacteria to colonize the vagina. Intercourse will drive bacteria from the vagina into the urethra, increasing the incidence of urinary tract infection in these females.
Renal failure patients accumulate both phosphorus and water between dialysis appointments. Increased levels of phosphorus can lead to leaching of calcium from the bones. Increased water can lead to relatively decreased red blood cell counts. Calcium/magnesium supplements can offset calcium loss from bones, but water intake should be carefully monitored to prevent accumulation in the plasma