57 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
Air and food are routed into the proper channels by the ________.
The loudness of a personʹs voice depends on ________.
D) the force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of
A) to secrete surfactant
After the segmental (tertiary) bronchus, the next smaller branch of the respiratory passageway
A) terminal bronchioles
The smallest macroscopic subdivision of the lung is the ________.
The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because ________.
D) they produce a lubricating serous secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the thorax
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.
A) Boyleʹs law
The statement, ʺin a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial
C) Daltonʹs law
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface
For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because ________.
B) a decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
B) increase of carbon dioxide
Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.
A) the ventral respiratory group
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
B) Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.
Another name for the inflation reflex is ________.
Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is
B) decrease in lactic acid levels
Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?
B) Kaposiʹs sarcoma
Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of
B) blood pH adjustment
Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the
B) Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.
Which of the following determines lung compliance?
D) alveolar surface tension
Tidal volume is air ________.
B) exchanged during normal breathing
The ideal vital capacity of an individual is around ________.
C) 4800 ml
Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.
A) too little oxygen in the atmosphere
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.
B) vital capacity
Since the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true
C) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta
Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
B) rising blood pressure
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
B) medulla and pons
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
C) inspiratory capacity
Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
C) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
Select the correct statement about the pharynx.
B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.
The larynx contains ________.
A) the thyroid cartilage
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
The oropharynx does not include ________.
D) pharyngeal tonsils
Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?
B) cardiac notch
Impairments of oxygen transport include ________.
B) carbon monoxide poisoning, a form of hypoxemic hypoxia
Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?
C) The chloride shift mechanism enhances CO2 transport.
Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.
B) voluntary cortical control
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
B) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Gas emboli may occur because ________.
B) a diver holds his breath upon ascent
Inspiratory capacity is ________.
A) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
Which center is located in the pons?
A) pontine respirator group (PRG)
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
B) as the initiator of the cough reflex
A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is
C) 28 weeks
Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?
D) The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations
Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.
A) The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to
Which of the following statements is correct?
C) Arterial pH does not affect central chemoreceptors directly
The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.
D) surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity.
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high
D) the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
A) ciliated mucous lining in the nose
Which of the following is not possible?
B) Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.
Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation.
C) As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity
Which of these is not a characteristic of emphysema?
A) bronchial edema