20 notecards = 5 pages (4 cards per page)
connective tissues surround spinal cord and brain
What are the layers of the meninges?
-Dura Mater: dense irregular connective tissue
What are the spaces between the meninges?
-Epidural space: above the dura mater; filled with fat and connective tissue
List the layers of the meninges along with the spaces in the meninges.
From what to what does the spinal cord extend to?
from the Medulla to the level of L2
What is the Conus Medullaris?
The tapering of the spinal cord at the L2 location
"horse's tail" which forms the inferior of spinal cord; made of pia mater
Where are the enlargements of the spinal cord?
C4-T1 for upper limbs; T9-T12 for lower limbs
What is the deep, wide, groove in the ventral surface?
Anterior Median Fissure
What is the shallow narrow groove on dorsal side?
Posterior Median Sulcus
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
What are the the roots of the spinal cord?
-where axons connect spinal cord to nerves
What are a group of myelinated axons called when inside the CNS and when outside the CNS?
-Group of myelinated axons inside the CNS= Tract/Column (one way street)
Describe the Dorsal and Ventral horns of gray matter in the spinal cord
Dorsal: somatic and autonomic sensory nuclei (comes into the spinal column)
Describe the Lateral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord
Only in the thoracic, upper lumbar and sacral regions; cell bodies of autonomic (involuntary) motor neurons for smooth, cardiac, and glandular tissue. Not in lower lumbar and cervical.
Forms the small little bit of gray matter above and below the central canal
Describe Ascending tracts and Descending tracts
Ascending (sensory) tracts: always bring information up from the body to the CNS
What are the types of Sensory tracts??
- Spinothalamic: lateral and anterior; pain, temperature, crude touch, and deep pressure (not very distinct)
What are the types of Motor tracts?
- Direct: travel directly from the brain to the skeletal muscle for very precise, voluntary movement
What are Association neurons?
neurons that integrate sensory input to all parts of the CNS