41 notecards = 11 pages (4 cards per page)
The peritoneal cavity
C)Like the pleural and pericardial cavities is a potential space containing serous fluid.
Obstruction of the hepatopancreatic sphincter impairs digestion by reducing the availability of
D)Pancreatic Juice and Bile
The action of an enzyme is influenced by
D)All of these
Carbohydrates are acted on by
B)Amylase, maltase, and sucrose
The Parasympathetic nervous system influences digestion by
B)Stimulating peristalsis and secretory activity
the digestive juice product, containing enzymes capable of digesting all four major foodstuff categories is
The vitamin associated with calcium absorption is
Someone who has eaten a meal of buttered toast, cream, and eggs, which of the following would you expect to happen?
D)all of these
The site of production of VIP and cholectystokinin is
B)The small intestine
Which of the following is not characteristic of the colon?
C)It is the main absorptive site
The gall bladder
C)Stores and concentrates bile
The sphincter between the stomach and duodenum is
A)The pyloric sphincter
The protein molecule will be digested by enzymes made by
D)The pancreas, stomach and small intestine
The protein molecule must be digested before it can be transported to and utilized by the cells because
D)The protein is too large to be readily absorbed
The products of protein digestion enter the bloodstream largely through the cells lining
B)The small intestine
Before the blood carrying the products of protein digestion reaches the heart it first passes through capillary networks in
Having passed through the regulatory organ selected above, the products of protein digestion are circulated through out the body. They will enter individual budy cells by
make a simple line drawing of the organs of the alimentary canal and label each organ. Then add three labels to your drawing – salivary glands, liver, and pancreas – use arrow to show where each of these organs empties its secretions into the alimentary canal
Sara was on a diet but she could not eat less and kept claiming her stomach had a mind of its own. She was joking, but indeed, there is a "gut brain" called the enteric nervous system. It is part of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system? Explain.
The digestive system does contain local nerve plexuses known as the local (enteric) nervous system or the gut brain. This is essentially composed of nerve plexuses in the wall of the alimentary canal that extend the entire length of the GI tract. These plexuses respond to local stimuli in the GI tract by initiating both short and long reflexes. The gut brain solely mediates the short reflexes. Long reflexes are initiated by both external and local stimuli, and involve both the gut brain and the ANS. (Sympathetic nerves inhibit GI tract activity, whereas parasympathetic nerves, primarily the vagus nerve, stimulate it.) (pp. 857-858)
Name the layers of the alimentary canal wall. Note the tissue composition and the major function of both
The basic alimentary canal wall structure consists of four tunics: the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa.
What is mesentery? Mesocolon? Greater omentum?
The mesentery is a double peritoneal fold that suspends the small intestine from the posterior abdominal wall. The mesocolon is a special dorsal mesentery that secures the transverse colon to the parietal peritoneum of the posterior abdominal wall. The greater omentum is also a double peritoneal sheet that covers the coils of the small intestine and wraps the transverse portion of the large intestine. (pp. 855, 890, 868)
Name the six functional activities of the digestive system.
The six functional activities of the digestive system are ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation. (pp. 853-854)
A) describe the boundaries of the oral cavity.
a) The boundaries of the oral cavity include the lips, cheeks, tongue, palate, and oropharynx.
A) What is the normal number or permanent teeth? Of deciduous teeth?
a)The normal number of permanent teeth is 32; deciduous teeth, 20.
Describe the two phases of swallowing, noting the organs involved and the activities that occur.
• Buccal (voluntary) phase of swallowing: organs involved—tongue, soft palate; activities—tongue compacts food into a bolus, forces the bolus into the oropharynx via tongue contractions. The soft palate rises to close off the superior nasopharynx. (p. 866)
Describe the role of these cells found in gastric glands: parietal, chief, mucous neck, and enteroendocrine.
The parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor. Chief cells produce pepsinogen. Mucous neck cells produce mucus that helps shield the stomach wall from damage by gastric juices. Enteroendocrine cells secrete hormones into the lamina propria. (p. 870)
Describe the regulation of the cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases of gastric secretion.
•Gastric secretion is controlled by both neural and hormonal mechanisms. The stimulation of gastric secretion involves three distinct phases: the cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases.
A) What is the relationship between the cystic, common hepatic, bile, and pancreatic ducts?
a)The cystic and common hepatic ducts fuse to form the bile duct, which fuses with the pancreatic ducts just before entering the duodenum. (p. 881)
Explain why fatty stools result from the absence of bile or pancreatic juice.
The absence of bile (which causes fat emulsification) and/or pancreatic juice (which contains essentially the only important source of lipase) causes fat absorption to be so slow as to allow most of the fat to be passed into the large intestine. (pp. 899-900)
Indicate the function of the stellate macrophages and the hepatocytes of the liver
The Kupffer cells function to remove debris such as bacteria from the blood. The hepatocytes function to produce bile, in addition to their many metabolic activities. (p. 881)
What are (a) brush border emzyems? (b) chylomicrons
a. Brush border enzymes are intestinal digestive enzymes; these are part of the plasma membrane of the microvilli of the intestinal absorptive cells. (p. 878)
Activation of pancreatic enzymes in the small intestine is a good example of the wisdom of the body. How so?
Activation of the pancreatic enzymes in the small intestine illustrates the wisdom of the body because this activation process protects the pancreas from being digested by its own enzymes. (p. 886)
Name one inflammatory condition of the digestive system particularly common to adolescents, two common in middle age, and one common in old age.
Common inflammatory conditions include appendicitis in adolescents, ulcers and gallbladder problems in middle-aged adults, and constipation in old age. (p. 904)
What are the effects of aging on digestive system activities?
The effects of aging on digestive system activity include declining mobility, reduced production of digestive juice, less efficient absorption, and slowing of peristalsis. (p. 904)
If the agent promotes increased bowel motility without providing for increased bulk, diverticulosis is a possibility, because the rigor of the colonic contractions increases when the volume of residues is small. This increases the pressure on the colon wall, promoting the formation of diverticula. If the product irritates the intestinal mucosa, diarrhea will occur. Intestinal contents will be moved rapidly through both the small and large intestines, leaving inadequate time for absorption of water, which can result in dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. (pp. 893–895)
This patient has the classical symptoms of a gallbladder attack in which a gallstone has lodged in the cystic duct. The pain is discontinuous and colicky because it reflects the rhythm of peristaltic contractions (contract-relax-contract-relax, etc.). The stone can be removed surgically or by sound or laser treatment. If it is not removed, bile will back up into the liver, and jaundice will result. (p. 885)
The baby’s blood would indicate acidosis due to the intestinal juice passing through the large intestine with little or no time for reabsorption of water and substances such as bicarbonate ions dissolved in water by the large intestine. (p. 895)
a.Most gastric ulcers are found to be caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori. This drug regimen successfully eradicates the infection.
An endoscope is an instrument used to visually inspect any cavity of the body and is composed of an illuminated fiber optic tube with a lens. The polyps seen were removed immediately because most colorectal cancers arise from initially benign polyps. Presently, colon cancer is the second largest cause of cancer death in males in the U.S. (p. 908)
Along with the risk of dehydration, severe diarrhea can result in loss of potassium, which could lead to an electrolyte imbalance that affects his neuromuscular function. His severe weakness may be a symptom of this. (p. 895)
The circle of tonsils around the opening of the pharynx is protective because the tonsils serve to invite pathogens in and expose the body defense system to them so a person can build immunity. What better location for such a function than right in the opening of the passageway for food, liquids, and air? (p. 760)