30 notecards = 8 pages (4 cards per page)
Cutting the phrenic nerves will result in what?
B)paralysis of the diaphragm
Which of the following laryngeal cartilages is/are not paired?
Under ordinary circumstances, the inflation reflex is initiated by
C)overinflation of the alveoli and bronchioles
The detergent-like substance that keeps alveoli from collapsing between breaths because it reduces surface tension of the water film in the alveoli is called what?
What determines the direction of gas movement?
B)partial pressure gradient
When the inspiratory muscles contract
C)the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases
The nutrient blood supply of the lungs is provided by what?
D)the bronchial arteries
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by what?
Which of the following would not normally be treated by 100% oxygen therapy?
C)respiratory crisis in an emphysema patient and eupnea
Most Oxygen carried in the blood is
C)Chemically combined with the heme in red blood cells
Which of the following has the greatest stimulating effect on the respiratory centers in the brain?
In mouth to mouth artificial respiration, the rescuer blows air from his or her own respiratory system into that of the victim. Which of the following is correct?
B)1, 2, 4
A baby holding its breath will
B)automatically start to breathe again when the carbon dioxide levels in the blood reach a high enough value
Under ordinary circumstances which of the following blood components is of no physiological significance?
Damage to which of the following would most likely result in cessation of breathing?
B)the ventral respiratory group of the medulla
The bulk of carbon dioxide is carried
B)as the ion HCO3- in the plasma after first entering the red blood cell
Trace the route of air from the external nares to the alveolus. Name subdivisions, of organs where applicable, then, differentiate between conducting and respiratory zone structures.
The route of air from the external nares to an alveolus and the organs involved are as follows: conducting zone structures—external nares, nasal cavity, pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx), larynx, trachea, and right and left primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi and successive bronchi orders, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles; respiratory zone structures—respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. (pp. 805–816)
a) Why is it important that the trachea is reinforced with cartilage rings?
a. The trachea is reinforced with cartilage rings to prevent the trachea from collapsing and to keep the airway patent despite the pressure changes that occur during breathing.
Briefly explain the reasons that men have deeper voices than boys or women.
The adult male larynx as a whole is larger and the vocal cords are longer than those of women or boys. These changes occur at puberty under the influence of rising levels of testosterone. (p. 808)
The lungs are mostly passageways and elastic tissue. a) what is the role of the elastic tissue?
a. The elastic tissue is essential both for normal inspiration and expiration; expiration is almost totally dependent on elastic recoil of the lungs when the inspiratory muscles relax. (p. 819)
Describe the functional relationships between volume changes and gas flow into and out of the lungs.
The volume of gas flow to and from the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure between the external atmosphere and the alveoli. Very small differences in pressure are sufficient to produce large volumes of gas flow. As thoracic volume increases, intrapulmonary pressure decreases, resulting in air flow into the lungs. When the lungs recoil, thoracic volume decreases, causing intrapulmonary pressure to increase, and gases flow out of the lungs. (p. 820)
Discuss how airway resistance, lung compliance, and alveolar surface tension influence pulmonary ventilation.
Pulmonary ventilation, or gas flow into and out of the lungs, relies on the pressure gra-dient between the atmosphere and alveoli, and airway diameter. Given that gas flow in a system is equal to the pressure gradient divided by the resistance, when resistance increases, gas flow decreases, and vice versa. Changes in resistance are related to airway diameter, which is greatest in medium-sized bronchi. Lung compliance is based on two factors: distensibility and alveolar surface tension. Distensibility is the degree of stretch possible in the lung tissue, while alveolar surface tension is related to the collapsing force of water vapor within the alveoli. Surfactant is secreted in the alveoli to optimize surface tension. In terms of lung compliance, the greater the volume increase for a given rise in pressure, the greater the compliance. (pp. 820–821)
a) Differentiate clearly between minute respiratory voloume and alveolar ventilation rate?
a. Minute ventilation is the total amount of gas that flows into and out of the respiratory tract in one minute. Alveolar ventilation rate takes into account the amount of air wasted in dead space areas and provides a measurement of the concentration of fresh gases in the alveoli at a particular time.
State Dalton’s law of partial pressure and Henry’s law
Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure exerted independently by each gas in the mixture. Henry’s law states that when a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure and its solubility in the liquid. (p. 824)
a) Define hyperventilation.
a. Hyperventilation is rapid or deep breathing.
Describe age-related changes in respiratory function.
Age-related changes include a loss of elasticity in the lungs and a more rigid chest wall. These factors result in a slowly decreasing ability to ventilate the lungs. Accompanying these changes is a decrease in blood oxygen levels and a reduced sensitivity to the stimulating effects of carbon dioxide. (p. 842)
Hemoglobin is almost completely (98%) saturated with oxygen in arterial blood at normal conditions. Hence, hyperventilation will increase the oxygen saturation very little, if at all. However, hyperventilation will flush CO2 out of the blood, ending the stimulus to breathe and possibly causing (1) cerebral ischemia due to hypocapnia, and (2) O2 decrease to dangerously low levels, resulting in fainting. (p. 828)
a. The lung penetrated by the knife collapsed because the intrapleural pressure became equal to the atmospheric pressure, allowing the pleural membranes to separate.
Adjacent bronchopulmonary segments are separated from one another by partitions of dense connective tissue, which no major vessels cross. Therefore, it is possible for a surgeon to dissect adjacent segments away from one another. The only vessels that had to be cauterized were the few main vessels to each bronchopulmonary segment. (p. 814)
Mary Ann is suffering from decompression sickness, brought on by the rapid ascent in the plane. During the week of diving, she accumulated nitrogen gas in her tissues that at normal altitudes leaves her tissues slowly and unnoticed. However, on the flight, cabin pressure decreased quickly enough to allow residual nitrogen gas to leave more rapidly, causing her symptoms. The return to a lower altitude with a higher atmospheric pressure upon landing alleviates her symptoms. (p. 825)