76 notecards = 19 pages (4 cards per page)
The activation of a muscle to generate force.
The type of muscle that attaches to bones, causing then to move around joints.
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds each muscle.
A bundle of muscle fibers.
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds each fascilulus.
The layer of connective tissue that separates adjacent muscle fibers within a fascilulus.
The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber.
Electrical impulses conducted by the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber.
The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber.
The only direct source of energy for muscle actions.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
The site of aerobic ATP production within the muscle cell.
The site of calcium storage and release within the muscle cell.
Protein structures that run parallel to the length of the muscle fiber.
Bundles of proteins comprising each myofibril.
The two contractile proteins that primarily comprise myofilaments.
myosin (thick) and actin (thin)
The protein that maintains the position of the myosin filament relative to actin.
The two regulatory proteins that mediate interactions between myosin and actin.
tropomysin and troponin
The protein that ensures the actin filaments are the correct length.
The basic contractile unit of muscle.
The line to which actin filaments are anchored, representing the boundaries of each sarcomere.
The band determined by the width of the myosin filament, providing the "dark" striation of skeletal muscle.
The zone within area of the A-band that contains myosin, but not actin.
The dark line in the middle of the H-zone which helps align adjacent myosin filaments.
The band that spans the distance between myosin filaments of two adjacent sarcomeres, providing the "light" striation of skeletal muscle.
The specialized interface between the nervous and muscle systems.
The region of the muscle cell membrane adjacent to the axon terminal.
The space between the axon terminal and motor endplate.
The most widely accepted theory of muscle action, which postulates that muscles shorten and lengthen due to changes in the amount of overlap of actin and myosin filament.
sliding filament theory
The excitatory neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular juntion.
Structures within the axon terminal which store ACh when the neuron is at rest.
The ion that binds to troponin, causing a shift in tropomysin that exposes the binding sites on actin.
The attachment formed between the binding sites on actin and the myosin head.
The enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the phosphate bond in ATP to form ADP and Pi.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)
The muscle action that results when the force generated by a muscle is greater than the external resistance.
concentric muscle action
The muscle action that results when the force generated by a muscle is less than the external resistance.
eccentric muscle action
The muscle action that results when the force generated by a muscle is equal to the external resistance.
isometric muscle action
Muscle pain occurring 24 to 48 hours following exercise most likely caused by tissue damage and inflammation.
delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
The ability of a muscle fiber to produce ATP aerobically.
The protein that delivers oxygen from the muscle cell membrane to the mitochondria.
The amount of force that a muscle fiber can produce relative to it's size.
Muscle fibers with high oxidative capacity and fatigue resistance.
type I (slow oxidative)
Muscle fibers with moderate oxidative capacity and anaerobic capacity.
type IIa (fast oxidative glycolytic)
Muscle fibers with high anaerobic capacity and contractile force.
type IIx (fast glycolytic)
The division of the nervous system comprised of the brain and spinal cord.
central nervous system
The division of the nervous system which lies outside of the central nervous system.
peripheral nervous system
The division of the peripheral nervous system which relays impulses from the CNS to the periphery.
The division of the peripheral nervous system which relays impulses from the periphery to the CNS.
The division of the nervous system responsible for activating skeletal muscles.
somatatic nervous system
The division of the nervous system responsible for involuntary functions.
autonomic nervous system
The basic unit of the nervous system.
Neurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to muscles.
motor (efferent) neurons
Neurons that conduct impulses from the periphery to the CNS.
sensory (afferent) neurons
The site of communication between two neurons, or a neuron and a gland or muscle cell.
Projections from the neuron cell body that recieve signals from other neurons.
A sensory organ found in skeletal muscles which is sensitive to lengthening force.
The reflex mediated by muscle spindles, which results in muscle fiber contraction in response to rapid changes in lengthening force.
myotatic (stretch) reflex
A sensory organ located at the junction of the muscle and tendon which is sensitive to changes in the contractile force.
Golgi tendon organ
The reflex mediated by the Golgi tendon organ, which results in muscle fiber relaxation in response to rapid changes in contractile force.
Golgi tendon (inverse stretch) reflex
A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers that it innervates.
An increase in the number of motor units that are activated to generate force.
motor unit recruitment
An increase in the firing rate of motor units that are activated to generate force.
The first motor units recruited are smaller, type I motor units, followed by larger type IIa, then type IIx.
size principle of motor unit recruitment
The portion of the skeletal system composed of the skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs.
The portion of the skeletal system composed of the bones of the upper and lower limbs.
The constant, dynamic breaking down of bone by osteoclasts and building up of bone by osteoblasts.
Hard, dense bone found primarily on the outer layers of the shafts of long bones.
cortical (compact) bone
Less dense bone found primarily in the interior of long bones, vertebrae, and the head of the femur.
cancellous (spongy) bone
The synthesis of blood cells.
A condition in which the bones become weak and brittle.
Connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
Connective tissue that attaches bones to other bones.
What is the name of the connective tissue that surrounds skeletal muscle?
How many neuromuscular junctions does each muscle fiber have?
Which of the following branches of the nervous system is responsible for activating skeletal muscles?
Which division of the skeleton contains the skull and vertebral column?
A. axial skeleton
Which of the following connective tissues connects muscle to bone?