191 notecards = 48 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract
2) Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
3) Digestion refers to the
D) mechanical and chemical breakdown of food.
4) Which of the following is not a function of the digestive
5) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term
B) sensory neural network
6) Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the
digestive tract are called
7) The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of
8) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term
D) coordinates activity of muscularis externa
9) Contraction of the ________ alters the shape of the intestinal
lumen and moves epithelial
D) muscularis mucosa
10) The ________ are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that
suspend the visceral organs and
11) Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic
postganglionic fibers can be found in the
D) submucosal neural plexus.
12) Sandwiched between the layer of circular and longitudinal muscle
in the muscularis externa is the
D) myenteric plexus.
13) Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the
14) The layer of loose connective tissue that directly supports the
digestive epithelium is the
A) lamina propria.
15) A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of
the following except in the
16) A feature of the digestive tract wall that increases surface area
available for absorption is the
B) circular folds.
17) The ________ supports all but 25 cm of the small intestine and
provides stability and limited
C) mesentery proper
18) Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides
padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?
B) greater omentum
19) Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of
C) large intestine
20) The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the
viscera are called
21) What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the
D) lesser omentum
22) All of the following contain mucous cells in the epithelium
23) The oral mucosa has ________ epithelium.
B) stratified squamous
24) The greater omentum is
D) a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera.
25) A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus
B) decrease intestinal motility.
26) Put the following layers of the digestive tract wall in order
from the lumen to the deepest
B) 4, 1, 6, 3, 2, 5
27) Which accessory organ of the digestive system does not produce
any enzymes or digestive secretions?
28) The movement of nutrients from the digestive tract lumen across
the epithelium is called
29) The process of defecation eliminates
30) Becky is experiencing indigestion and pain. The doctor also notes
ascites formation in her
D) buildup of peritoneal fluid in the peritoneal cavity
31) The mesocolon is
E) a mesentery associated with a portion of the large intestine.
32) Hormones are released from the mucosa layer by these
A) enteroendocrine cells
33) The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following
D) absorption of monosaccharides.
34) ________ pair(s) of salivary glands secrete into the oral
35) The ________ gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of
the second upper molar.
36) A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx
prematurely is the
37) Functions of the tongue include all of the following
E) partitioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx.
38) The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar
to that of bone called
39) The part of a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is
D) pulp cavity.
40) The root of a tooth is covered by
41) The crown of a tooth is covered by
42) ________ are also known as canines.
43) A blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands would
C) interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.
44) Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results
C) parasympathetic stimulation.
45) In most cases, the mumps is a viral infection of the ________
46) The ________ salivary glands are covered by the mucous membrane
in the floor of the
47) Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large
amounts of salivary amylase?
48) The space between the cheeks or lips and the teeth is called
49) The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is
50) The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the
underlying epithelium is the
C) lingual frenulum.
51) The uvula is located at the
D) posterior margin of the soft palate.
52) ________ are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or
53) ________ are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and
54) ________ are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges
that are adapted for crushing and grinding.
55) Within the oral cavity, both mechanical and chemical ________
56) The dangling process that aids in keeping food out of the
nasopharynx is known as the
57) The oral cavity is also known as the ________ cavity.
58) The first teeth to appear are the ________ teeth.
59) There are normally a total of ________ deciduous teeth.
60) There are normally a total of ________ permanent teeth.
61) The technical term for chewing is
62) Which structure is not found in the oral cavity?
63) The oral mucosa in much of the oral cavity such as the roof of
the mouth and the surface of
A) keratinized stratified squamous
64) The location of the palatine tonsil in the oral cavity is
D) between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches.
65) Hillary could not suckle milk properly due to the inability to
protrude her tongue. The
66) Intrinsic and extrinsic movements of the tongue are controlled by
the ________ cranial
67) Which salivary gland produces a mucous rich secretion that acts
as a buffer and lubricant?
68) Each tooth is held in the alveolar socket by the
C) periodontal ligament.
69) Which of the following is not a pharyngeal muscle involved in
70) The epithelium lining the oropharynx is
D) stratified squamous.
71) Upon swallowing, food moves from the mouth directly into
72) The esophagus has several variations from the standard plan of
the GI tract. These include
C) muscularis externa has some skeletal muscle.
73) During deglutition, which of the following phases is
74) Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in
75) Which of the following statements is not true of
C) Primary peristaltic waves are controlled by the facial nerves.
76) Functions of the stomach include all of the following
D) absorption of triglycerides.
77) Parietal cells secrete
D) hydrochloric acid.
78) Chief cells secrete
79) G cells of the stomach secrete
80) To which region of the stomach does the esophagus
81) The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for
food and secretions is the
82) The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is
E) pyloric part.
83) The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are
84) The stomach secretes the hormone ghrelin which functions
D) stimulate hunger.
85) Gastric pits are
C) openings into gastric glands.
86) The enzyme pepsin digests
87) An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that
coagulates milk proteins is
88) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term
E) stimulates gastric secretion
89) During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion,
C) CNS sensory or cognitive activation increases neural stimulation of the stomach.
90) The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by
B) entry of food into the stomach.
91) All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric
digestion except that it
A) precedes the gastric phase.
92) Distension of the gastric wall leads to secretion of histamines
from the lamina propria. This is an example of ________
93) Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity.
As a result, you would expect Mary to be at risk for
B) abnormal erythropoiesis.
94) All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach except
E) recycles bile.
95) The stomach is different from other digestive organs in that
B) has three layers of muscle in the muscularis externa.
96) Match the gastric phase on the left (1-3) with the correct
description on the right (4-6):
E) 1 and 5; 2 and 6; 3 and 4
97) Put the following steps of stomach acid production in the correct
order starting with the
E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2
98) A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal
cells would result in
B) a higher pH during gastric digestion.
99) D cells release ________, which inhibits the release of
100) Which is not a reason the stomach is acidic?
B) Emulsification of lipids.
101) Leptin is to satiety as ________ is to hunger.
102) Which of the following is true regarding digestion and
absorption in the stomach?
D) Protein digestion begins in the stomach.
103) Which of the following is not involved in the regulation of
E) hypoglossal nerve
104) Stimulation of gastric stretch receptors causes all of the
A) a decrease in myenteric plexus stimulation.
113) The fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms
C) bile duct.
114) In the center of a liver lobule there is a
D) central vein.
115) The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of
C) pancreatic acini.
116) Each of the following is a function of the liver except
B) antibody production.
117) The basic functional units of the liver are the
118) ________ are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series
of irregular plates
119) The structure that marks the division between the right and left
lobes of the liver is the
C) falciform ligament.
120) Bile is stored in the
121) A proenzyme secreted by the pancreas is
122) Which of the following has an association with the fetal
A) falciform ligament
123) Which of the following is not a component of the portal triad
found at the edges of a liver lobule?
C) central vein
124) Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with
125) The essential functions of the liver include all of the
E) hormonal regulation.
126) Match the proenzyme on the left (1-3) with the correct enzyme
activator on the right (4-6).
E) 1 and 5; 2 and 4; 3 and 6
127) A drug that blocks the action of the hormone cholecystokinin
would affect all of the following except
E) absorption of water in the large intestines.
128) An obstruction of the bile duct often results in
A) undigested fat in the feces.
129) If the pancreatic duct was obstructed, you would expect to see
elevated blood levels of
130) Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the
following symptoms would
131) In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a
B) rich in bicarbonate ion.
132) In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas
secretes a fluid
A) rich in enzymes.
133) Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a
condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective
tissue. Which of the following signs would you not expect to observe
E) impaired erythropoiesis
134) Bile salts aid in the digestion of fats by ________ large fat
135) Your patient with liver failure has a firm, rounded abdomen due
to accumulation of fluid.
136) Pancreatic juice enters the small intestine at the
C) duodenal papilla.
137) Identify the incorrect pairing.
D) liver; produces intrinsic factor
138) A blood clot blocking flow through the liver might cause
C) portal hypertension.
139) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term
E) alkaline mixture of enzymes, water and ions produced by acinar cells
140) Which of the following enzymes is not produced by the
141) Which is not true of pancreatic enzymes?
A) Their primary site of action is the pancreas.
142) Which of the following is not a lobe of the liver?
143) Inflammation of the gallbladder is termed
144) Circular folds and intestinal villi
A) increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.
145) Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic of
146) The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the
C) bile duct and the pancreatic duct.
147) The villi are most developed in the
148) Peyer's patches are characteristic of the
149) All of the following enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the
small intestine except
150) The middle segment of the small intestine is the
151) The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is
152) Circular folds are
B) pleats in the lining of the small intestine.
153) An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucin production by the
submucosal duodenal glands is
154) The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a
155) An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin
from the pancreatic islet cells is
E) gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
156) An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion
157) The gastroileal reflex
D) moves some chyme to the colon.
158) A surgical procedure to promote rapid weight loss is removal of
most of the
159) The part of the small intestine most likely to develop an ulcer
from exposure to gastric juice is the
160) In response to the arrival of acidic chyme in the duodenum,
A) blood levels of secretin rise.
161) Hydrochloric acid from the stomach is neutralized in the small
B) bicarbonate from the pancreas.
162) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term
D) causes gallbladder to contract
163) The majority of nutrient absorption occurs in the
C) small intestines.
164) Place the following structures in order as food passes into
E) 5, 2, 4, 3, 1
165) Brush border enzymes are found in the
166) Which of the following is true regarding the production of
D) Local reflexes and parasympathetic stimulation increase the production of intestinal juice.
167) Motility in the small intestines is controlled in part by all of
the following except
168) Which reflex is stimulated by stretch receptors in the stomach
to increase motility and
E) gastroenteric reflex
177) Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each
day in the colon are called
E) mass movements.
178) Functions of the large intestine include
C) reabsorption of water and compaction of feces.
179) At the hepatic flexure, the colon becomes the
B) transverse colon.
180) Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is
181) Haustra are
A) expansible pouches of the colon.
182) The teniae coli are
B) longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall.
183) At the splenic flexure, the colon becomes the
C) descending colon.
184) The pouchlike structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal
valve is the
185) A small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial
surface of the cecum is the
186) The defecation reflex involves
B) relaxation of both the internal and external anal sphincters.
187) Which is not part of the large intestine?
188) Which of these digestive structures is not necessary for
189) Which of the following is not found in the large
190) The enzyme amylase digests
191) An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is
192) Carbohydrate digestion begins in the
193) If digestion of a carbohydrate results in equal amounts of
glucose and galactose, this carbohydrate is probably
194) Which of the following is false concerning the process known as
A) Only neutral compounds such as sugars are transported.
195) Products of fat digestion are transported initially by
C) lymphatic vessels.
196) The absorption of some sugars in the small intestine
197) Absorption of glucose from the gut lumen depends on all of the
E) emulsification forming small micelles.
198) Which of the following is true regarding lactose
D) The intestinal crypts are not producing the enzyme lactase.
199) Sucrose is hydrolyzed by sucrase into glucose and
200) Complexes of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts are
201) Triglycerides, steroids, phospholipids and fat-soluble vitamins
that are coated with proteins are called
202) Chemical protein digestion begins in the
203) Which of the following is not a digestive enzyme?
2) Which type of salivary glands produces glycoproteins called
mucins? (Figure 24-9)
3) Name the region of the stomach that connects to the esophagus.
4) Chyme in the duodenum stimulates the secretion of what hormones in
the digestive tract?
E) GIP, VIP, CCK, and secretin
5) What stimulates stretch receptors in the rectum? (Figure
D) feces causing distension in the rectum