31 notecards = 8 pages (4 cards per page)
What is the upper respiratory zone
areas above the larynx
What is the lower respiratory zone
areas below the larynx
what is the larynx commonly called
what is the pharynx commonly called.
name the three regions.
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Name the two types of cartilage found in the larynx
hyaline (thyroid and cricoid) and elastic (epiglottis)
Draw the flow of air from outside air to alveoli.
what are the respiratory zones and conducting zones
gas exchange; passageways
alveoli; trachea and bronchi
explain how the lobes of the lungs and how they differ in cats
right has three lobes; left has 2.
cats: right has four lobes; left has 3.
what nerve stimulates the diaphragm
name the right and left lobes of the cat
right=anterior, middle,posterior, mediastinal
left=anterior, middle, posterior
name the trachea tissue layers
1. psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells
2. connective tissue
3. hyaline cartilage
4. smooth muscle
What is respiration
the gas exchange of CO2 and O2
what are the four phases and locations of respiration
1. pulmonary ventilation=air moving in and out of lungs
2. external respiration= gas exchange of lungs/ blood in alveoli
3. transport=gases travel in blood
4. internal respiration= gas exchange of blood/cells in body tissues
what and where is the respiratory membrane
what is the tissue type
external respiration gas exchange occurs here.
between alveoli and capillary walls
simple squamous epithelium
what is the bronchial tree
branching of brochi
List the bronchial tree starting with primary bronchi and ending with alveoli
alveolar ducts and sacs
what is important about the pleura of the lungs
allow lungs to expand with chest
negative pressure of the two pleura keep them attached to chest wall
what will happen if the pleura of the lungs equalize with atmospheric pressure
pneumothorax and they will collapse (atelectasis)
which phase of respiration is the name for breathing
what are the two phases of pulmonary ventilation
inspiration and expiration
is inspiration active or passive? what muscles are used during quiet inspiration and forced inspiration?
diaphragm + external intercostals (quiet)
scalenes + sternocleidomastoid (forced)
what is the volume and pressure relationship that allows inspiration to occur? (diaphragm does what)
The diaphragm pulls down and increases the volume. Decreases the pressure and air flows from the outside into the lungs.
is expiration active or passive? what muscles are used during forced expiration?
internal intercostals and abdominals
what is the volume and pressure relationship that allows expiration to occur? (diaphragm does what)
The diaphragm pushes up and decreases the volume. The pressure increases and air flows out of the lungs.
Name and describe the two respiratory sounds.
bronchial= air moving in large passages such as trachea
vesicular=air filling alveoli
What instrument measure respiratory volumes and capacities
Define obstructive pulmonary diseases and restrictive disoders.
obstructive= increases airway resistance/blockage; asthma
restrictive= decreases actual lung capacity; TB
What FEV1/FVC % is good? What does it mean if your % is low
Hyperventilation ___________________________ CO2 which ___________________________________ pH
Hypoventilation ___________________________ CO2 which ___________________________________ pH
what does surfactant do?
decreases surface tension of water. helps alveoli resist shrinking