47 notecards = 12 pages (4 cards per page)
describe the different shapes of bacterial cells
describe the different groupings of bacterial cells
what is biofilm?
why is it important to study prokaryotic cell structures?
what is the main function of the cytoplasmic membrane for bacteria?
describe the organization and functions of the lipid and protein components of the cytoplasmic membrane
what is osmosis
explain the effects of the following solutions on bacterial cells:
a) pure distilled water
b) high sugar or high salt solution (higher solute concentration)
how would the effects (from the previous question 8) differ for bacteria that have damaged cell walls?
describe passive and active transport systems in the cytoplasmic membrance
what is the main function of the cell wall for bacteria?
describe the composition of peptidoglycan (PG) - including N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, and tetrapeptide chains
describe the composition and structure of Gram(+) bacterial cell walls
what are some functions of cell wall proteins for Gram(+) bacteria?
describe the composition and structure of Gram(-) cell walls
what aspect of the Gram(-) cell wall makes these bacteria relatively insensitive to lysosomes, bile salts, and many antibiotics?
what is the main function of outer membrane proteins for Gram(-) bacteria?
what is lipolysaccharide (LPS)?
describe the organization of O-polysaccharide and lipid A in LPS
why is O-polysaccharide useful for bacterial identification?
what is endotoxin? how can endotoxin get into the bloodstream? how does endotoxin affect the body?
list the four steps of Gram staining and explain the purpose of each step
what colors are expected for Gram(+) cs. Gram(-) cells after each step of the staining procedure?
explain how the antibiotic penicillin and the enzyme lysozyme affect Gram(+) vs. Gram(-) cells
describe the following exceptions to Gram(+) or Gram(-) cell walls :
describe the composition and explain the main functions of capsules for bacteria
why do bacteria with capsules act more virulent compared to bacteria without capsules?
what does it mean to say that capsule components are antigenic?
explain the use of capsular polysaccharides as vaccines
describe the structure, arrangments, and movement of bacterial flagella
what is the main function of flagella for bacteria?
describe the structure and function of pili (fimbriae) for bacteria
what role do pili play in bacterial disease?
explain the function of sex pili for bacteria
how do sex pili provide one way for bacteria to acquire new genes?
describe the composition and structure of a typical prokaryotic chromosome
explain how genetic diversity contributes to evolution by natural selection
give several reasons why prokaryotes evolve so quickly
what are plasmids and how do they contribute to prokaryotic genetic diversity?
give a few examples of the importance of plasmids
describe the structure and function of ribosomes
what are some of the substances in storage granules of bacteria?
describe the procedures used to identify acid-fast bacteria
describe the procedures used to see endospores
what are the expected staining results and observed cell shapes for each type of bacteria used in lab?
explain the effects of hypertonic or hypotonic surroundings on Gram(+) penicillin treated bacterial cells
explain the effects of hypertonic or hypotonic surroundings on Gram(-) penicillin treated bacterial cells