201 notecards = 51 pages (4 cards per page)
What is a characteristic of viral herpes?
When a boxer gets hit & has a deviated septum?
Vomer (in nose)
Which of the following is a structure found in the upper respiratory?
A person who has damage to their ulnar nerve will have decreased sensation in?
Arm, inability to adduct arms & fingers
Which bone does not articulate with any other bone?
Which of the following statements best describes endocrine glands?
They secrete chemicals into the blood, growth, metabolism, sexual development & function
Diet is important because bone are storage places for?
Calcium & Phosphorus
Which organ is part of both the male reproductive system & the urinary system?
Ligaments provide which connection?
Bone to bone
Which structure conducts urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder?
Anaerobic respiration can lead to a burning sensation cause by which molecule?
As part of the negative feedback system, which type of cell is stimulated to re-absorb bone matrx in response to a decrease in Calcium in the blood?
Osteoclasts (break down bone so it can release Ca+ into interstitial fluid)
Sweat on the skin’s surface cool’s the body through which process?
When assessing a female client who describes herself as a vegetarian in the nurse notes that she has unusual skin color. The nurse should ask the client if she has eaten a large amount of?
Carrot & squash
Which hand position describes anatomical position of a person who is standing erect with feet forward?
Palms facing anterior
Which structure is a ball & socket joint?
Which anatomical structure houses the malleus, incus & stapes?
Skull / Ear
What are like cells grouped together called?
The Pulse Point located behind the knee is Palpated over which artery?
Ceruminous (Apocrine) glands secrete?
What type of synovial joint is the elbow?
What occurs when the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated / increased?
Where does digestion begin in the digestive system?
Which cell structure regulates the transport of substances in & out of a cell?
The mediastinum is located within which cavity?
What is the effect of Serotonin, a neurotransmitter?
Involved with mood, anxiety, sleep, happiness, appetite
What is the response of cells in the collecting tubules in nephrons when Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)is secreted?
H20 is re-absorbed from urinary filtrate
What is the Function of thrombocytes (Platelets)?
Which muscle of the quad femoris group lies on the outer side surface of lower extremity?
Which structure is located on the sternum?
The occipital region is located in which part of the body?
Head / Skull
Which structure carries Oxygen to the cells?
Which gland is commonly known as the “Master Gland”?
Aspirin occurs when there is a tear in which structures?
What epidermal derivative is involved in temperature homeostasis?
Eccrine gland (Merocrine / sweat gland)
Which statement are true about bone?
Osteoblast (buildup of bone), Epiphyseal (end of bone) , Diaphysis (shaft of bone)
Aqueous humor is watery fluid in which part of the body?
Eye (in front of eye, between lens & cornea)
The malleus, incus & stapes are located in which part of the body?
Dorsiflexion & plantarflexion are types of joint movement that are associated with which part of the body?
Within which vessel does blood return from the lungs?
Pulmonary vein (Remember pulmonary is heart, veins take deoxygenated blood back to heart. Arteries carry oxygen & nutrients away from heart)
Which part of the brain is involved in auditory functioning?
What internal structure of the ear is concerned with hearing?
Fertilization of an ovum occurs in which anatomical structure?
Fallopian tubes (also called uterine tubes)
Where is the tibialis anterior muscle located?
An overproduction of cerumen (earwax) can accumulate in which area?
External ear & canals
The mitral valve is located between which two structures?
Left ventricle & left atrium
The olfactory nerve is associated in which sense?
Vessel carries blood from the body to the heart?
Hormones produced by the ovaries?
Estrogen & Progesterone
Plane divides the body into left & right sides?
Two divisions that make up the nervous system?
PNS & CNS (Peripheral & Central)
The orthopedic surgeon informs you that you have broken the distal region of the humerus. What area is he describing?
Part of the brain that attaches to the spinal cord?
Which term is used to describe movement of the arms & legs away from midline of the body?
Abduction (AB = Away from)
Structure that provides a pulse reading in the neck?
Which hormone is produced by the posterior pituitary gland?
Oxytocin & ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) (ADH is also known as Vasopressin)
What is the primary function of hemoglobin?
What stimulates chemoreceptors to function?
↑ in CO2 & ↓ in O2
Which condition causes a client to say “I can’t see far away”?
Nearsightedness (Think opposite, Far is near, near is far)
What is the function of Golgi apparatus?
Packaging proteins for secretion & transports lipids around the cell Synthesize carbs & glycoproteins
What organ produces insulin?
Fertilization occurs in the?
When drawing blood from antecubital region, which blood vessel is used to obtain blood?
What hormone induces growth of pubic & axillary hair at puberty?
Testosterone & Estrogen
Increase in rate of breathing results in what blood PH change?
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Regulates balance & thermoregulation
How many carbs per gram do carbs contain?
When water molecules move across the cell membrane from high to low concentration, this process is called?
What is the result of carbon dioxide in the body?
Body becomes more acidic
What part of the body is the lower back?
High levels of which ion would most likely result in a cardiac arrest?
What blood vessels perfuses (goes through) the kidney?
Renal vein (this vein drains the kidney)
What gland is located on the anterior surface of the trachea?
In white blood cells ,what contributes to phagocytosis?
Macrophages & neutrophils
What structure of the eye picks out color?
What is the most protective layer of the skin?
The organ of corti is located in the?
Where in the body are nutrients absorbed?
The rough ER functions in the human cells to?
Tissue repair is enhanced by a diet high in?
What is the definition of chyme?
Semi-fluid mass of partially digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum.
What are hormones?
What female reproductive organ produces oocytes, estrogen & progesterone?
What cellular process helps to move debris and mucous through the lining of tubules?
Which is a hollow organ?
Which muscle(s) is included in the quad femoris group?
Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus medialis, Vastus intermedius
Which structure is responsible for normal respiratory function?
A client has a large pituitary tumor, what part of the body does this effect?
Low blood pressure, sickness, head hurting, vision problems
Which structures produce B-lymphocytes?
Red bone marrow
What occurs when the sympathetic nervous system is stimulation is increased?
Blood pressure ↑ & goose bumps
The buttocks are which surface of the body?
The esophagus is located in which body cavity?
The tympanic membrane is located between which structures?
External auditory canal & middle ear
How many days is the average menstrual cycle?
Which structure produces T-lymphocytes?
Calcaneus is located in?
Urinary system in the human body primary task is to?
Which of the following produce progesterone to prepare the uterus for pregnancy?
What are finger prints made of?
Friction ridges/ dermal papillae
ABCD of cancer?
Which of the following location(s) would the urinary bladder & internal reproductive organ be found?
Which one ↑ angle at the joint?
Which hormone is released by posterior lobe?
Oxytocin & ADH ( ADH is also known as Vasopressin)
Order of organization of living things?
Organelle, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystem, biosphere.
All living things are made up of?
What bones are formed first during intramembranous ossification?
Flat bones of the skull, the mandible, and the clavicles
Most obvious skin cancer?
Basal cell carcinoma
Active transport requires?
Requires energy (ATP) from cell
Does not require energy (ATP)
Passive movement of MOLECULES or PARTICLES along a concentration gradient, to low concentration.
Movement of water across a membrane (low to high concentration)
Fibrous joint are?
Stationary & held together by ligaments only (Ex: teeth in socket)
Connection between articulating bones made up of cartilage
Synovial joints are?
Freely mobile (Ex: Hinge, pivot, saddle)
Types of asexual reproduction?
Binary fission Mitosis
What is the eustachian tube?
Links the nasopharynx to the middle ear
Calciferol (aka Vitamin D) is controlled by?
Sebaceous gland function?
What is endocytosis?
Engulfs and brings in (endo = internal)
What is exocytosis?
Fuses with plasma membrane & releases contents outside the cell (exo= exit)
Pituitary gland produces?
Adrenocorticotropic hormone & Growth hormone
What does the adrenal gland secrete?
Cortisol & Aldosterone
Aerobic respiration takes place in?
Mitochondria & REQUIRES oxygen & glucose to produce carbon dioxide, water & energy
Anaerobic respiration produces?
Energy & uses glucose, but produces less energy and does NOT require oxygen
What part(s) of the respiratory system are in the lower respiratory?
Bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
Aerobic respirations happens in the presence of?
What is the soft spot on a baby’s head?
Layers of the epidermis? (Superficial to deep)
Stratum Corneum, Lucidum, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basale
The top of the sternum is called?
Parts of the sternum?
Manubrium, body, xiphoid process
What makes up most plasma?
Chains of amino acids
What is Mitosis?
The process of cell division that occurs in 5 stages before pinching 2 daughter cells in a process called cytokinesis
What is Meiosis?
Is to make haploid gametes & the production of germ cells
Precursor to the glucose molecule is produced in a process, Uses sunlight to synthesize foods from CO2 and H2O, Generates oxygen as a byproduct.
Ribs are attached to the?
A auricle is?
A thin pouch in the heart
Inspiration is ___ and Expiration is?
Inspiration = inhale & Expiration = exhale
What separates the Abdominal & thoracic cavity?
The distal convoluted tubule is controlled by?
Reabsorbing calcium, sodium, and chloride and regulates the pH of urine by secreting protons and absorbing bicarbonate Works with hormone Aldosterone
HCL is a chemical in the stomach, why is it not absorbed or cause harm to the stomach?
Mucus lining protects it
Largest layer in the heart?
What makes colors of the skin?
Melanin. (we all have the same # of melanocytes, it is the amount of melanin that determines our color)
Produced by: Hypothalamus & Released by: Posterior pituitary
Bone to bone
Bone to muscle
Bone forming cells
4 steps of bone ossification?
Hematoma formation, Callus formation, Ossification, Bone remodeling
Gall bladder is part of?
Vastus lateralis extends?
Extends & stabilizes the knee
Muscle contraction that moves food through digestive tract?
Schwann cells are located in?
Peripheral nervous system
How does Nervous system work with Muscular system?
Tells muscles how to respond to environment
Somatic Nervous System?
Part of PNS associated with the VOLUNTARY CONTROL of body movements via skeletal muscles. Consists of afferent nerves or sensory nerves, & efferent nerves or motor nerves
Autonomic Nervous System?
Regulates a variety of body process that takes place without conscious effort. Part of the PNS & is responsible for regulating INVOLUNTARY body functions, such as heartbeat, blood flow, breathing, and digestion
Which organ system is responsible for regulating muscle growth?
How does lymph work with circulatory?
Lymph draws excess fluid from cells & deposits it into blood vessels
What is the function of parathyroid?
Activation of vitamin D
What is a normal heart beat?
72 bpm 120 over 80
How is pepsin used in the body?
Breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. It is produced in the stomach & is one of the main digestive enzymes in the digestive systems
Which system produces antibodies?
Blood that has supplied nutrients & Oxygen to heart muscle returns to right atrium via?
Blood in the pulmonary veins return to the?
Diploid has __ chromosomes? (MITOSIS)
Haploid has __ chromosomes? (MEIOSIS)
2 Diploid cells
4 Haploid cells
Skeletal system function?
Protection, movement, mineral storage, production of blood
Efferent neurons are?
Motor neurons that carry neural impulses AWAY from the CNS & towards muscles to cause movement.
Afferent neurons are?
Sensory neurons that carry nerve impulses from sensory stimuli TOWARDS the CNS & brain
Mature haploid male or female germ cell which are able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote. Male or female reproductive cell that contains half the genetic material of the organism. Are an organism's reproductive cells. They are also referred to as sex cells. Female gametes are called ova or egg cells, and male gametes are called sperm. Gametes are HAPLOID cells (Meiosis), & each cell carries ONLY ONE copy of each chromosome.
What do capillaries do?
Carry blood AWAY from body in order to exchange nutrients, oxygen & waste
What is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere & blood through the alveoli called?
External respiration (exhaling)
The exchange of gases between the blood and tissue cells is?
Internal respiration (inhaling)
Most of carbon dioxide in the blood does which of the following?
It is converted to bicarbonate ions by carbonic anhydrase within RBC (red blood cells)
Ovum can be described as?
A mature female reproductive cell & can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by male cell
What are the two functions of the male & female sex organs?
Production of gametes & production of hormones
Which tissues serves as the framework by providing support & structure for organs?
What are the glands of the skin that produce a thin, watery secretion?
Eccrine Glands (aka Sweat glands or Merocrine glands)
All actions of the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over which of the following?
White blood cells that are also one of the body's main types of immune cells They are made in the bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph tissue. Defend the body against foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, & cancer cells that can threaten its functioning
A WBC (White blood cell) that Phagocytize microorganisms
In order for inhalation to occur?
Contraction of diaphragm, which enlarges chest cavity and draws in air
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
Where does fertilization occur?
Cellular contact is important for?
The most abundant tissue is?
The_____ discharges the urine out of the body.
Temporary storage of urine is the function of the ________.
The tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi is called ____________.
The ______ are tiny air-filled sacs which are
The________ is the passageway leading from the oral and nasal cavities in the head to the esophagus and larynx.
Which of the following means “away from the midline”?
toward the front
closer to the point of attachment
farther away from the point of attachment
All except which of the following is located superior to the maxilla bone?
Mitosis occurs in which layer of the skin?