52 notecards = 13 pages (4 cards per page)
Size of the heart is a function of the size of what?
The size of the person
Approximate dimensions of the heart?
5" long and 3.5" wide
The heart mass is a function of what?
The person's size, gender, age and contitioning
Approximate heart mass?
9 to 12 oz
Would the heart of an athlete weight more or less than an elderly individual and why?
MORE, because it is more muscular
Where is the heart positioned?
Thoracic cavity, AKA the mediastinum
Which direction(s) does the apex point?
Inferiorly, anteriorly and to the left
Define the "Long axis of the heart"
The distance from the LV to the root of the aorta
How many heart borders are there and what are their names?
What makes up the Superior Borde r?
Right and Left Atrium
What makes up the Left Border?
Primarily the Left Ventricle, some Left Atrium
What makes up the Inferior Border?
Primarily the Right Ventricle, some Left Ventricle near the Apex
**This side is almost horizontal
What makes up the Right Border?
Right Atrium in a straight line with the superior and inferior Venae Cava
The Heart and roots of the great vessels are enveloped by the....
Describe the pericardium
A fibrous sac that folds on itself and contains a thin film of fluid called the serous fluid or pericardial fluid
Functional roles of the pericardium (4):
Components of the heart Wall Structure
Contractile units of muscle with specific arrangements of the proteins Myosin, actin and troponin
What makes up the 4 Chambers of the heart?
Partitioning of the heart chambers involves what two septum?
The septum separating the RA from the LA has a shallow depression called the......
In the fetal heart this is where there was an opening called the foramen ovale
What direction is the Interventricular septum pushed to and why?
Due to pressure differences between the LV and RV, the inter ventricular septum is pushed to the RIGHT
Heart Features: Right Atrium
Heart Features: Right Ventricle
Heart Features: Left Atrium
Heart Features: Left Ventricle
Name 4 Septal Defects
Describe Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)
When the flap-like opening in the septum between the RA and LA in a fetus does not close after birth; 25% of the population
Describe Atrial Fibrilation
AFib treatment options
Dilated LV with minimal hypertrophy
Marked LV Hypertrophy
Infiltrated or fibrotic LV
No longer flexible; restrictive & cannot expand as it should
Describe the heart valves
Inlet Valves are the .....
Atrioventricular Valves; separate the atria and ventricles
What makes up the Atrioventricular Valves?
Connected by the "heart strings" to the papillary muscles
Outlet Valves are the....
Semilunar Valves; separate the ventricles from the great arteries
What makes up the Semilunar Valves?
What is stenosis?
Obstruction of valve leading to decrease in forward blood flow
What is insufficiency?
Leaky Valve leading to backflow of blood
valve does not completely close; regurgitation
Describe blood flow velocity within a closed flow stream
The volume flow rate at Point 1 is equal to the volume flow rate at point 2
Describe blood flow velocity within an area that is narrowed
The velocity must increase in order to have the same volume flow
Consequences of Aortic stenosis (3)
What are the two NORMAL Heart sounds heard in the normal adult heart?
Describe the First Heart Sound (S1)
Result of Mitral and Tricuspid valves closing at the beginning of systole
Describe the Second Heart Sound (S2)
Result of Aortic and Pulmonic Valves closing at the beginning of diastole
What are the 2 components of the Second Heart Sound?
A2 and P2
Major Coronary Arteries of the Heart? (5)