95 notecards = 24 pages (4 cards per page)
Sources of drugs
Plants (poppy), animals, synthetic chemicals and genetically engineered chemicals
Chemical Name of Drugs
describes drug's anatomic and molecular structure (P- isobutylhydratropic acid)
Generic Name of Drugs
identifies drug's active ingredient (ibuprofen)
Trade (proprietary) Name of Drugs
brand name (Advil)
often the first drug of a particular drug class to be developed; the standard against which newer, similar drugs are compared
Pharmacologic group or family
drugs that share similar characteristics
How can be drugs be classified?
chemical, physiologic, therapeutic
What are controlled substances?
categorized by federal law according to therapeutic usefulness and potential for abuse
Category I or Schedule I
Category II or Schedule II
Category III or Schedule III
Category IV or Schedule IV
Category V or Schedule V
What responsibilities does a nurse have regarding the administration of controlled substances?
Storing in locked containers
The Controlled Substances Act regulates the manufacture and distribution of what?
What are the 6 competencies of QSEN?
What does the FDA do?
create guidelines for approval and use of drugs
Procedure for Drug Development and Approval
Discovery, Preclinical Trials, Clinical Trials and Approval
Phase 0 Testing
tested on animals
Phase I Testing
given to healthy individuals to determine safe dosages, routes of admin, side effects
Phase II Testing
given to volunteers with the disease or symptoms the drug targets and compare side effects
Phase III Testing
given to different populations in different dosages to determine benefit vs risk
Phase IV Testing
Drug marketed and monitored w/ reports of safety and effectiveness
Prescription Drug Marketing Act
safety and effectiveness of prescription drugs
Controlled Substances Act
What does the DEA do?
Sources of Drug Information
drug publications, pharmacists, healthcare providers, drug guides
What are the 4 processess of pharmacokinetics?
Ways that drugs move through body
What is absorption?
A Drug's route of administration will affect the _____ and _____ of that drug
rate and extent of absorption
Absorption characteristics vary according to the ______ and _____
dosage form and route
Factors that affect absorption
3 Routes of Administration
What is distribution?
Factors that affect distribution
Areas of rapid distribution of a drug in the body
Brain, heart, liver, kidneys
Protein binding and distribution
Blood brain barrier
keeps toxins and proteins from reaching the brain
What is metabolism?
Where can metabolism occur?
liver, kidneys, lungs, plasma, intestines
What are prodrugs?
What are the products of metabolism?
High first-pass effect
a drug given orally is extensively metabolized by liver before reaching systemic circulation
How do you prevent the first-pass effect from taking place?
administer with another route, like an IV, because it bypasses the liver and more of the drug can reach the circulation
What is excretion?
elimination of drugs from the body
What are the organs responsible for excretion?
kidneys, liver, bowels
glomerular filtration, passive tubular reabsorption, active tubular secretion
drug molecules in bile are reabsorbed, prolongs time drug is in the bloodstream
point at which the amount of drug being administered and the amount of drug being eliminated are equal
rate at which drug molecules disappear from the circulatory system
Factors that affect clearance
gender, renal excretion and hepatic metabolism
what the drug does to the body
Variables that influence the dose of a drug
potency (level needed to produce an effect), efficacy, maintenance
larger than usual dose to reach a therapeutic effect quicker
difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose
narrow = effective dose and toxic dose do not differ by much
blood levels of a drug are compared to the therapeutic range to guide dosage
responses are the opposite of what is anticipated
drowsiness, seizures, auditory/visual disturbances
hepatitis, jaundice, fatty infiltration
decreased urinary output, elevated BUN/creatinine, altered acid-base balance, electrolyte imbalances
tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo
conduction defects, heart failure, damage to the myocardium
immunosuppression, increased in infections
understanding of drug actions and adverse effects, drug response, how to maximize therapeutic effects, minimize adverse effects, patient and family education, collaboration with providers
Factors affecting medication dosage and responses
age, sex, body weight, genetics, diet, tolerance, accumulation
What are the 10 rights of medication administration?
1. Right Patient
2. Right Drug
7. Right documentation
8. Right to refuse
9. Right assessment
10. Right evaluation
Select correct drug by
1. check label before you take bottle from shelf
A,D,E,K, Vitamin C
iron, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium
a vitamin, mineral, an herb, or other botanical use to supplement the diet
Controls for alternative therapies
Concerns about CAM
Concerns about CAM and patients
What could happen if CAM interacts with prescription medications?
may decrease therapeutic effect or increase adverse effects
CAM product labels should
Dosage forms of CAM
tablet, capsule, tea or extract
Patients using CAM should
Children and CAM