34 notecards = 9 pages (4 cards per page)
The blood volume in an adult averages approximately
The hormonal stimulus that prompts red blood cell formation is
All of the following are true of RBCs except
The most numerous WBC is the
Blood proteins play an important part in
D)all of the above
The white blood cell that releases histamine and other inflammatory chemicals is the
The blood cell that can become an antibody-secreting cell is the
Which of the following does NOT promote multiple steps in the clotting pathway?
The normal pH of the blood is about
Suppose your blood was found to be AB positive. This means that
C)all of the above
(a) Define formed elements and list their three major categories.
a. The formed elements are living blood cells. The major categories of formed elements are erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
Discuss hemoglobin relative to its chemical structure, its function, and the color changes it undergoes during loading and unloading of oxygen.
Hemoglobin is made up of the protein globin bound to the pigment heme. Each molecule contains four polypeptide chains (globins) and four heme groups, each bearing an atom of iron in its center. Its function is to bind oxygen to each iron atom. When oxygen is loaded (bound to hemoglobin), the hemoglobin becomes bright red. When oxygen is unloaded from the iron, the hemoglobin becomes dark red. (p. 635)
If you had high hematocrit, would you expect your hemoglobin determination to be high or low? Why?
With a high hematocrit, you would expect the hemoglobin determination to be high, since the hematocrit is the percent of blood made up of RBCs, which contain hemoglobin. (p. 632)
What nutrients are needed for erythropoiesis?
In addition to carbohydrates for energy and amino acids needed for protein synthesis, the nutrients needed for erythropoiesis are iron and certain B vitamins. (p. 638)
(a) Describe the process of erythropoiesis.
a. In the process of erythropoiesis, a hemocytoblast is transformed into a proerythroblast, which gives rise to basophilic, then polychromatic erythroblasts, orthochromatic erythroblasts, and reticulocytes.
Besides the blood's ability to move by amoeboid motion, what other physiological attributes contribute to the function of White blood cells in the body?
The physiological attributes that contribute to the function of white blood cells in the body include exhibition of positive chemotaxis enabling them to pinpoint areas of tissue damage, diapedesis (moving through capillary walls), and the ability to participate in phagocytosis. (p. 640)
(a) If you had a severe infection . would you expect your WBC count to be close to 5000, 10,000, or 15,000/ul
a. With a severe infection, the WBC count would be closest to 15,000 WBC/mm3 of blood.
(a) Describe the appearance of platelets and state their major function.
a. Platelets appear as small discoid fragments of large, multinucleated cells called megakaryocytes. They are essential for the clotting process and work by clumping together to form a temporary plug to prevent blood loss.
(a) Define homostasis.
a. Literally, hemostasis is “blood standing still” because it refers to clotted blood. It encompasses the steps that prevent blood loss from blood vessels. (p. 646)
(a) Define fibrinolysis.
a. Fibrinolysis is the disposal of clots when healing has occurred.
(a) How is clot overgrowth usually prevented?
a. Clot overgrowth is usually prevented by rapid removal of coagulation factors and inhibition of activated clotting factors. (pp. 649–650)
How can liver dysfunction cause bleeding disorders?
Bleeding disorders occur when the liver cannot synthesize its usual supply of procoagulants. (p. 650)
(a) What is a transfusion reaction and why does it matter?
a. A transfusion reaction involves agglutination of foreign RBCs, leading to clogging of small blood vessels, and lysis of the donated RBCs. It occurs when mismatched blood is transfused.
How can poor nutrition lead to anemia
Among other things, poor nutrition can cause iron-deficiency anemia due to inadequate intake of iron-containing foods or to pernicious anemia due to deficiency of vitamin B12. (pp. 638–639)
What blood-related problems are most common in the aged?
The most common blood-related problems for the aged include chronic types of leukemias, anemias, and thromboembolic disease. (p. 654)
Hematopoiesis is a process involving fairly rapid cell production. Because chemothera-peutic drugs target cells exhibiting rapid turnover (rather than other specific properties of cancer cells), hemopoiesis is a target of chemotherapeutic drugs and must be carefully monitored. (p. 636)
a. Mary would probably be given a whole blood transfusion. It is essential that she maintain sufficient O2-carrying capacity to serve fetal needs and blood volume to maintain circulation.
a. Polycythemia accounts for his higher erythrocyte count because of the need to produce more RBCs to increase his O2 binding and transport ability in the high-altitude (thinner air) environment of the Alps. Enhanced production of RBCs was prompted by an increased production of erythropoietin, in response to chronic hypoxia.
As a consequence of acute lymphocytic anemia, Janie’s leukocytes are immature or abnormal and are incapable of defending her body in the usual way. (p. 639)
Red bone marrow is the site of hemopoiesis, and if it is destroyed by benzene, hemocy-toblasts will not be produced, which will reduce the production of megakaryocytes (the progenitor cells of platelets, which are involved in clotting). (p. 636)
Tyler is turning out a high rate of reticulocytes (immature red blood cells), which accounts for his polycythemia and high hematocrit. (p. 636)
Based on the description of the roles of various proteins in the clotting process, the two blood proteins are thrombin and fibrinogen. (p. 648)
An elevated RBC count could be related to smoking, due to the frequent hypoxia that results from inhalation of oxygen-poor cigarette smoke. Chronic hypoxia is a stimulus for the release of erythropoietin, which promotes RBC formation. (p. 640)
Aspirin is a mild anticoagulant, which could cause excessive bleeding during or after surgery. (p. 650)