33 notecards = 9 pages (4 cards per page)
Partially hydrogenated oils are no longer
considered safe for the use of human foods
Carries dietary fat from the small intestine to cells
Carries lipids made and taken up by the liver to cells
Carries cholesterol made by the liver and from other sources to cells
Contributes to cholesterol removal from cells and, in turn, excretion of it from the body
review of digestion
1. large fat droplets enter the small intestine after a meal
2.bile acids and lecithin emulsify large fat droplets into smaller particles
3. Lipase breaks down triglyceride into fatty acids , glycerol and monoglyceride
4. Monoglycerides and fatty acids are absorbed into the small intestinal cells and then reformed into triglycerides
5. short and medium chain fatty acids enter the bloodstream ( cardiovascular system)
6.triglyceride combine with cholesterol, protein and phospholipids to form chylomicrons which enter the lymphatic system
1. Some lipase is released by the salivary glands into the stomach
2. Salivary lipase and gastric lipase begin digesting short chained fatty acids into the stomach
3. Bile emulsifies the fat
4. pancreatic lipase digest long chain fatty acids and triglycerides
5 triglycerides are broken down and absorbed in the small intestine
5 steps of fat digestion
The majority of fatty acids in body and in foods are __________ chain fatty acids.
the use of fatty acids in the form of triglycerides aka Triglycerides are used for energy storage, insulation, and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins.
energy storage, insulation, and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins.
Cis fatty acid
hydrogen is on the same side of the carbon- carbon double bond
trans fatty acid
hydrogen is found on the opposite side of the carbon- carbon double bond
CLA or natural trans fat
decrease the risk of heart disease cancer and obesity
omega 6 fatty acid
are called unsaturated fatty acids
the first carbon double bond is on the 6th carbon bond of the methyl end of the carbon chain
omega 3 fatty acid is
essential fatty acids
cannot be synthesized in the body.
non essential fatty acids
can be synthesized in the body and do not need to be supplied by the diet.
Regular consumption of fatty fish provides dha and epa which can be slowly synthesized in the body as long as the essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid is present in adequate quantities.
dha =decohexaeonic acid
EPa= eicosapentaeonic acid
lipids in foods and in the body are mostly forms of
consist of two fatty acids bonded to a glycerol backbone
it is the breakdown product of a triglyceride.
it is one of the products of digestion of triglycerides.
it consist of one fatty acid bonded to a glycerol backbone
what is the most important function of a phospholipid molecule?
helps form cell membrane
is a phospholipid and a major part of the cell membrane.
What is true about sterols
cholesterol is a common example
they contain a multi- ring structure
they can be produced by the body
function of cholesterol
and incorporation of cell structures
avocados are classifies as
Saturated fatty acids consist of
carbon- carbon single bonds
dietary fats consist of a complex mixture of several different types of fatty acids
_________unsaturated fatty acids are similar to saturated fatty acids with regard to shape and function
To protect cardio health, major health authorities recommend limiting intakes of
saturated and trans fat
How are fatty acids distinguished ?
number of carbon-carbon double bonds along the skeleton
position of carbon-carbon bonds along the skeleton
length of carbon skeleton
systolic b p
pressure associated with pumping blood from the heart
pressure in arterial b vessels when the heart is between beats
function of hdl cholesterol in the bloodstream
pick up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources
donate cholesterol to other lipoprotein for transport back to the liver for excretion