51 notecards = 13 pages (4 cards per page)
Based on current research, what are the two factors needed for development of celiac disease?
-genetic predisposition to celiac disease
Which organelles are capable of converting energy from nutrients into a form the cells can use
What is the order of the parts of the small intestine in order they appear in the GI tract?
Enzymes are made of
It is difficult to pinpoint the exact cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but some possible causes include.
depression and stress
alteration of hormones that regulate the movement of food through the gi tract
what yields energy?
organ that stores bile
illiustrate the relationship between the immune system and nutritional status
an individual with HIV is at increased risk of contracting food-borne illness
an individual with vitamin c defiency suffers from impaired wound healing
populations in areas stricken by famine
The digestive system supports the immune system by
preventing pathogens in food from invading the body
Depending on the contents of a meal food moves from the ___________into the small intestines over the course of 1-4 hours.
The cell membrane is a lipid bilayer of phospholipid
human metabolism includes
They enable us to release and use energy from foods,
synthesize one substance from another
and prepare waste products for excretion.
How well a person's individual organs work is determined by
his/her overall nutritional state.
DNA is stored in the _______ of the cell
____________is a segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein.
Vitamins and minerals can be broken down to yield energy
What is a true statement about organelles?
an organelle performs a specialized function
a lysosome is one example of an organelle
an organelle may be a compartment, particle or filament within the cell
Plays a role in the formation of myelin sheath
Most of the time the brain relies on ________ as it's source of enegy
increasing fiber and fluid intakes corrects mild cases of
How does fiber work in reducing constipation?
fiber stimulates persistalis by drawing water into the large intestines.
Treatment for mild constipation include
schedule bowel movements at the same time each day
laxatives lessen constipation by
Increasing fecal bulk
stimulating the nerves of the gi tract
drawing water into the large intestines
signs of hemorrohoids
pain with bowel movements
itching in the rectal area
streaks of blood in the stool
Symptoms associated with ____ include visible abdominal distention, pain relief after a bowel movement, increased stool frequency, loose stools with pain onset, mucus in stool, and a feeling of incomplete elimination after a bowel movement.
Increasing __________ helps with IBS symptoms
Prompt treatment of dehydration—within 24 to 48 hours—is critical, especially for
infants and older adults
Gallstones are pieces of solid material that develop in the gallbladder when substances in the bile—primarily __________(80% of gallstones)—form crystal-like particles
The secretion of more cholesterol into bile leads to
In those with celiac disease exposure to _________causing a flattening of the villi, which thereby reduces the absorptive surface
Malabsorption of nutrients caused by __________ can lead to weight loss anemia, infertility and bone loss
Grains that should be eliminated from the diet if someone has celiac disease
wheat / rye
What type of flour is gluten free
Some people experience symptoms of celiac disease after ingestion of gluten, but they do not have the small intestinal pathology of celiac disease, nor do they express the antibodies typical of celiac disease.
nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), sometimes called gluten intolerance.
Nonceliac gluten sensitivity symptoms
joint pain, fatique, headaches and sleep disorders.
Vomiting blood or what looks like coffee grounds and the appearance of black, tarry stools are signs of bleeding in the GI tract
___________symptoms may include pain, nausea, gagging, cough, or hoarseness. The recurrent and therefore more serious form of the problem is called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
An individual with GERD should lie down after eating due to
promotes stomach acid to enter the esophagus
The catabolic form of metabolism
takes molecules apart.
The breakdown of glucose in the initial phase of metabolism is
The aerobic phase takes place in
a primary treatment of gallstones are
Gluten is naturally found in
wheat, rye and barley
People with celiac disease experience an autoimmune response when
they consume gluten
Long term use of antibiotics can kill the bacteria in the large intestines, thereby leading to ___________-
Lipase and amylase are two components of__________ which is produced by glands in the mouth
Amylase is an enzyme needed to digest
the epiglottis prevent a bolus from entering the ___________
persistalsis refers to
waves of muscular contractions that propel food along the gastrointestinal tract