173 notecards = 44 pages (4 cards per page)
Parts of bone
fibrous membrane covering the outer surface
shaft of a long bone
end of a long bone that at first is separated from the main part by cartilage but later fuses with it by ossification
Halo, tube-like structure within the diaphysis
inner membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
What two tissues is the skeletal system composed of?
What are two types of bone?
• Compact (outer layer)
outer layer consists of which to the naked eye appear stents and structureless
the spongy bone of the medullary cavity and bony trabeculae
Two types of bone cells:
enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity by removing bone from the diaphysis wall
produce new bone around the outer circumference from the periosteum
bone destruction by osteoclast
bone formation from connective tissue
Congenital/Hereditary Diseases of Bone
• Vertebral Anomalies
vertebrate with characteristics of another spinal region
where is a transitional vertebrae most commonly located
It occurs most often at L/S junction.
is a spinal canal defect caused from failure of the
spina bifida occulta
is a mild, insignificant form, in which there is a
spina bifida Large defects have complications of herniations:
protrusion of the meninges through the skin
herniation of the spinal cord and meninges through the skin
It is a rare hereditary bone dysplasia in which failure of the
what is the nickname for Osteopetrosis?
Osteopetrosis is nicknamed “marble bones.”
what does Osteopetrosis result in?
It results in very brittle bones.
It is an inherited generalized disorder of connective
Osteogenesis imperfecta is nicknamed?
Osteogenesis imperfecta is nicknamed “brittle bone disease.”
How would this disease with less dense bone affect technique?
technique would be lower
the most common form of dwarfism
Achondroplasia is the most common form of dwarfism.
what does achondroplasia result from?
It results from diminished proliferation of cartilage in the growth
Is achondroplasia dominant or recessive?
It is an autosomal dominant condition.
what is achondroplasia characterized by?
It is characterized by short limbs with a normal axial skeleton.
Congenital hip dysplasia/dislocation is known as?
Congenital hip dysplasia/dislocation is known as developmental hip
what does congenital hip dysplasia/dislocation result from?
It results from incomplete acetabulum formation caused
Inflammatory and Infectious Disorders
• Rheumatoid Arthritis
what is rheumatoid arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic idiopathic disease.
what does rheumatoid arthritis appear as?
appears primarily as a noninfectious inflammatory arthritis of
• Ankylosing spondylitis
how does rheumatoid arthritis begin?
what is osteoarthritis(Degenerative Joint Disease)?
is a very common generalized disorder characterized by
what causes osteoarthritis?
It is part of the wear and tear of the aging process.
what does osteoarthritis affect?
It affects the weight-bearing joints (spine, hip, knee, ankle) and
what's the best way to show osteoarthritis on an X-ray?
what does osteoarthritis look like on an X-ray?
the earliest radiographic findings in degenerative joint disease are narrowing of the joint space, caused by thinning of the articular cartilage, and development of the small bony spurs(osteophytes) along the margins of the articular edge of the bones.
what is infectious arthritis caused by?
Infectious arthritis is caused by pyogenic organisms.
what is the most common form of infectious arthritis?
The most common type is migratory arthritis from Lyme disease.
what is tuberculosis arthritis?
is a chronic, indolent infection that has a gradual
tuberculosis arthritis usually involves one joint, commonly the:
most patients with tuberculosis arthritis also have?
Most patients have pulmonary TB.
what is bursitis?
is an inflammation of the small fluid-filled sacs located
• Repeated physical activity (most common)
what is the modality of choice for bursitis?
what is a rotator cuff?
The rotator cuff of the shoulder is a musculotendinous
what do rotator cuff tears produce?
Tears produce a communication between the shoulder joint and
what is the modality of choice for a rotator cuff tear?
MRI is modality of choice for demonstration
tears of the meniscus are common cause of what?
Tears of the menisci of the knee are common cause of knee pain.
tears of the meniscus of the knee causes:
• Acute trauma
what is the modality of choice for meniscus knee tears
MRI is the modality of choice to demonstrate meniscal tears
is an inflammation of the bone and marrow caused by a variety of infectious organisms.
how does bacterial osteomyelitis spread?
Infectious organisms reach bone by hematogenous spread, extension
what is the modality of choice for bacterial osteomyelitis?
how does bacterial osteomyelitis begin? how is it caused?
Tuberculous osteomyelitis (Pott’s disease)
Rare today – but usually affects T and L spine
Metabolic Bone Disease
is a generalized or localized deficiency of bone matrix in
what causes osteoporosis?
Its causes include aging and postmenopausal hormonal changes.
how do you have to change your technique for osteoporosis?
A decrease in kVp is required to obtain quality image.
what is osteomalacia?
Osteomalacia is insufficient mineralization of the adult skeleton.
what is osteomalacia caused by?
may be caused by inadequate intake or absorption of
what are the results to bone from osteomalacia?
is a systemic disease of infancy and childhood that is
what is the cause of rickets?
Calcification of growing skeletal elements is defective because of
what is gout? how does it affect the body?
is a disorder in the metabolism of purine (a component
where does gout normally show up first?
Gout manifests as very painful arthritis that initially attacks a
what is Paget's disease also known as?
Paget’s disease is also known as osteitis deformans.
what are the phases of Paget's disease?
what is the most common initial site for Paget's disease?
what is Paget's disease? what is the cure?
It is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases of
what is Paget's disease caused an increased risk of?
There is associated increased risk of osteosarcoma later in life.
Lead poisoning results from the ingestion of lead-containing
what causes lead poisoning from environmental exposure to occur?
Environmental exposure occurs when drinking water (leaded
what is the number one major environmental pollutant worldwide?
Currently, lead is the number one major environmental pollutant
what does chronic lead poisoning cause?
Chronic form of lead poisoning may cause mental
why is lead poisoning more common in children?
Children are more susceptible to lower doses.
what is fibrous dysplasia?
Fibrous dysplasia is characterized by the proliferation of fibrous
what does fibrous dysplasia cause?
It causes loss of trabecular markings and widening of the bone.
why does Ischemic Necrosis of Bone occur?
Occurs due to a loss of blood supply
Ischemic Necrosis of Bone causes:
Ischemic Necrosis of Bone x-ray
Benign bone tumors:
Malignant bone tumors:
• Osteogenic sarcoma
what is osteochondroma? where is it commonly located?
It is a benign projection of bone with a cartilaginous cap that
what is osteochondroma also termed? what are the characteristics?
Osteochondroma is also termed exostosis.
what are enchondromas?
Enchondromas are low-growing benign cartilaginous tumors arising
where do enchondromas occur?
They are primarily in the small bones of the hands and feet. They are often found when a fracture occurs with minimal force.
where does a giant cell tumor typically arise? does it affect the joint?
Giant cell tumor typically arises at the end of the distal femur
where do osteomas occur? what do they cause?
Osteomas most often arise in the outer table of the skull,
how do osteomas appear radiographically?
They appear radiographically as well-circumscribed, extremely
What is osteoid osteoma?
Osteoid osteoma is typically imaged as a small, round or oval,
What age group is osteoid osteoma most common in?
It is most common in teenagers or young adults.
what is the main symptom of osteoid osteoma?
Symptom is local pain, which increases at night and is easily
what is a simple bone cyst?
is a true fluid-filled cyst with a wall of fibrous
what's another name for a simple bone cyst?
how is the simple bone cyst discovered? Why?
It is asymptomatic. It is often discovered either incidentally or after pathologic fracture.
simple bone cyst x-ray
what is an aneurysm bone cyst?
An aneurysmal bone cyst is not a true neoplasm or cyst. It consists of numerous blood-filled, arteriovenous communications thought to be caused by trauma.
aneurysmal bone cyst x-ray
what is a bone Island? where do they occur?
Bone islands are solitary, sharply demarcated areas of dense
malignant bone tumors appearance
what is an osteogenic sarcoma?
a malignant tumor of osteoblasts, which produce osteoid and spicules of calcified bone.
where does an osteogenic sarcoma occur?
generally occurs in the end of a long bone in the metaphysis (especially about the knee).
what age group is osteogenic sarcoma normally found in?
It is most common in persons between 10 and 25 years old. Smaller peak incidence is seen in older persons who have a preexisting bone disorder, particularly Paget’s disease.
what is chondrosarcoma?
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of cartilaginous origin that
where does chondrosarcoma occur?
Commonly occurs in long bones, but often originates in a rib,
when does chondrosarcoma occur?
It develops at a later age (peak incidence in 35- to 60-year
What is Ewing’s sarcoma?
is a primary malignant tumor arising in the bone
What age group does Ewing's sarcoma occur in?
It occurs in children and young adults.
what is multiple myeloma?
Multiple myeloma is a widespread malignancy of plasma cells. It is associated with bone destruction, bone marrow failure, hypercalcemia, renal failure, and recurrent infections.
what age group is multiple myeloma found in?
The disease affects primarily persons between 40 and 70 years of age.
multiple myeloma appearance
what are bone metastases?
Bone metastases are the most common malignant bone tumors. They are more common than primary neoplasms.
how do bone metastases spread?
They spread from primary tumors by means of the bloodstream or
what are common primaries for bone metastases?
The most common primary tumors are carcinomas of the breast, lung, prostate, kidney, and thyroid. Favorite sites of metastatic spread are bones containing red marrow, such as the spine, pelvis, ribs, skull, and the upper ends of the humerus and femur.
bone metastases modality of choice
types of fractures
results in two bone fragments
one side of bone cortex intact
open compound fracture
fracture with associated skin wound
fracture with skin intact
fracture line is horizontal to long axis of bone
fracture line extends at an angle to long axis of bone
fracture line encircles the shaft
small fragments pulled from bone by attached ligaments or
more than two bone fragments
triangular fragment separated from two larger fragments
a piece of the shaft is separated by proximal and
compacts the trabeculae
fragment driven inward, e.g., skull fragment pushed into
occurs in immature bone; one side of cortex remains
Torus (Buckle) fracture
compaction of one side of the cortex
plastic deformity of bone
Location of bone fragments
fragments not angled or separated
described by direction of distal fragment in relation to proximal fragment
angular deformity of the axes of the major
fracture healing Malunion
healing of fracture fragments in a faulty position
fracture healing delayed Union
fracture that takes longer to heal than the average fracture at that anatomic location
fracture healing nonunion
fracture healing process has completely stopped and the fragments remain ununited even with prolonged immobilization
when does a pathological fracture occur?
occur in diseased bones.
Stress fractures are the response of bone to repeated stressors, none of which alone would cause a fracture. Stress or force is usually not significant enough to cause a fracture in healthy bone.
what is battered child syndrome?
Battered-child syndrome refers to multiple, repeated,
what is battered child syndrome known as?
It is also known as suspected nonaccidental trauma (SNAT).
what should happen if a batter child syndrome is suspected?
Imaging professionals have a legal responsibility to report
Transverse fracture through the distal radius with
Transverse fracture of the neck of the 5th metacarpal
Ulnar shaft fracture associated with anterior dislocation of the
radius at the
Radial shaft fracture and a dorsal (posterior) dislocation of the
ulna at the
• Fractures of the spine are classified as either:
Stable fractures leave one of the two major columns of the spine
Unstable fractures disrupt both major columns.
Comminuted fracture of C1
Most occur at base of dens
Fracture of C2 arch with subluxation of C2–C3
clay shovelers fracture
An avulsion fracture of a spinous process in the lower C-spine or upper Tspine
seat belt fracture
Transverse fracture of lumbar vertebral body
Herniation of Intervertebral Disks and locations?
Protrusion of a portion of the disk
Scoliosis is a twisting and curvature of the vertebral column in
The most common types of scoliosis:
spondylolysis and most common site
Spondylolysis is a cleft in the pars interarticularis without
Spondylolisthesis definition, causes, and caused by?
Spondylolisthesis is the forward displacement of one vertebra