223 notecards = 56 pages (4 cards per page)
If your friend is not looking for a job because she wishes to travel the world, she is _____.
not in the labor force at all
Many retail stores hire sales assistants during the Chrismas season. However, soon thereafter in January, they lay off these people, creating the problem of _______ unemployment.
If your friend is unemployed because she has a mismatch of job skills, she is technically classified as a part of ______ unemployment.
The inflation rate for the wholesale industry is measured by _______.
the Producer Price Index
An inflation rate can measured by the change in ____________.
the consumer price index (CPI), the producer price index (PPI), the GDP deflator
If a U.S. company produces and sells $1 million of cars in Europe, it would be included in _______ of the U.S.
the Gross National Product (GNP)
Well-functioning financial markets promote _______
Poorly performing financial markets can be the cause of______
Stocks represent the value of ______ whereas bonds represents the value of _____.
If there are a large number of discouraged workers, the official unemployment rate published by the government may ______ the true unemployment rate in the economy.
Which of the following does NOT describes phases of a business cycle?
unemployment and peak
According to Professor Choi, the reason why it is difficult to cure an economic illness such as a cool-down or a recession is because there are time lags. Which of the following describes the time lag that is associated with knowing whether there is an economic problem or not?
Total national output of the U.S. is measured by ______ which is based on the concept of the ______ of production.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP); location
The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is a ________ institute that declares a period of an economic ______, based on the past economic performance data of a nation.
private and not-for-profit; recession
According to Prof. Choi, ______ in an economy is like blood in a human body.
Trade deficit exists when exports are _______ imports.
When the aggregate or average price level in an economy declines, it is known as ________.
If your 20-year old friend is "institutionalized," she is _____.
not in the labor force at all
In the past around the 1930s, _______ experienced a severe economic depression but _______ did not.
the U.S.; Japan
If the labor force has 250 million people and 5 million people are unemployed, the unemployment rate is cauclated as _____.
The Gross Domestic Product is based on _______ whereas the Gross National Product (GNP) is based on ______.
the location of production; the ownership of factors of production
Sustained downward movements in the business cycle are referred to as
During a recession, output declines result in
higher unemployment in the economy.
Which of the following is most often used in labor union contracts to adjust annual salaries or other compensations?
the consumer price index (CPI)
Trade deficit exists when exports are _______ imports and trade surplus exists when imports are _______ exports.
smaller than; smaller than
If a quarterly inflation rate, as measured by the consumer price index, is 4%, its annualized inflation rate is ______.
The total market value of all final goods and services produced by the factors of production owned by citizens and companies of a given country during a given year, regardless of location of production, is known as _______.
the Gross National Product (GNP)
Strong U.S. dollar against Chinese yuan favors _______ .
the U.S. importers, the U.S. consumers, the Chinese exporters
Weak U.S. dollar against Chinese yuan favors _______ .
the U.S. exporters, the Chinese importers
If the price level increases from 200 in year 1 to 220 in year 2, the rate of inflation from year 1 to year 2 is
The gross domestic product is the
the market value of all final goods and services produced in an economy in a year.
If the aggregate price level at time t is denoted by Pt, the inflation rate from time t - 1 to t is defined as
πt = (Pt - Pt - 1)/Pt - 1.
Professor Choi describes and analyzes the overall health of an economy by identifying such markets as _____?
The labor market and the product market, The financial market and the foreign market
An economic recession describes a ______ in the national output and an inflation describes a(n) _______ in an aggregate or average price level.
The _______ is responsible for formulating and executing the monetary policy via the control of ______.
Federal Reserve System; money supply
Which of the following is most likely to result from a stronger dollar?
U.S. goods exported abroad will cost more in foreign countries, and so foreigners will buy fewer of them.
Everything else constant, a stronger dollar will mean that
vacationing in England becomes less expensive.
Stocks represent ______ and ______ in a company .
Securities are ________ for the person who buys them, but are ________ for the individual or firm that issues them.
The principal lender-savers are
Which of the following can be described as involving indirect finance?
You make a deposit at a bank.
_______ uses the expected inflation rates in two countries to evaluate a forward foreign exchange (FX) rate.
The purchase power parity
The (securitized) bonds issued by government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) are called _________.
government agency securities
The capital market trades ______ financial instruments.
Which of the following is a contractual savings institution?
a life insurance company
An investment intermediary that lends funds to consumers is
a finance company.
Which of the following are NOT contractual savings institutions?
Nonbank financial institutions are also known as _______.
nonbank banks, shadow banks
Indirect financing uses _______________ whereas direct financing uses ________ to connect the lenders to the borrowers.
financial intermediaries; financial markets
If a Japanese company such as Toyota sells a $1000 bond in the United States, the bond is a _____.
If Microsoft sells a bond in London and it is denominated in US dollars, the bond is a ______.
If you trade a currency in a 6-month forward foreign exchange (FX) market, you are ______.
agreeing now on the FX rate that will be used in 6 months from now
A trade made via an exchange is guaranteed by _______ whereas that made in an OTC (=over the counter) market is guaranted by __________.
the exchange; the interested parties
The action of buying a certificate of deposit from a bank is a form of ______.
lending money to the bank
The action of buying a sandwich is a form of ______.
paying money to the merchant
When a Japanese merchant quotes the British pound as $2 per British pound, this is known as _______.
an American quotation or terms
If the foreign exchange rate moves from 2 euros per US dollar to 1 euro per US dollar, it means that the euro became _______ and US dollar became _________.
The price of one country's currency in terms of another country's currency is called the
The market for initial public offerings (IPOs) of stocks is an example of ________.
the primary market for stocks
The purchasing power parity is often used to determine a _____ forward foreign exchange (FX) rates whereas the interest rate parity is often used to determine a ______ forward FX rates.
Bonds issued by state and local governments are called ________ bonds.
Which of the following instruments are traded in a money market?
U.S. Treasury bills
Equity and debt instruments with maturities greater than one year are called ________ market instruments.
Mortgage-backed securities are similar to ________ but the interest and principal payments are backed by the individual mortgages within the security.
Which of the following instruments are traded in a capital market?
A financial market in which only short-term debt instruments are traded is called the ________ market.
If the maturity of a debt instrument is less than one year, the debt is called
Because these securities are more liquid and generally have smaller price fluctuations, corporations and banks use the ________ securities to earn interest on temporary surplus funds.
The process of indirect finance using financial intermediaries is called
Which of the following gives an owner a claim to the ownership of a corporation?
Which of the following is/are the capital market instrument(s)?
Corporate bonds and Treasury notes, Municipal bonds
The financial intermediaries that the average person interacts with most frequently are
Financial markets promote economic efficiency by
channeling funds from savers to borrowers, channeling funds from borrowers to savers
Financial intermediation conducted by banks and other financial institutions _______.
can benefit economic performance.
Which of the following is a depository institution?
Commercial banks, Savings and loan associations (S&Ls), Credit unions
Lenders are also known as _______.
Borrowers are also known as _______.
demanders of loanable funds, bond sellers, bond issuers
A debt instrument issued by a corporation is called ______ if it has a maturity less than 1 year.
a commercial paper
Corporate checks whose payment terms are guaranteed by an endorsing bank and predominantly, used in international business by importers are ________.
Short-term financing arrangements where debt instruments are sold one day and usually repurchased next day (or in a few days) are ________.
Which of the following are depository institutions?
commercial banks, credit unions
Which of the following are NOT nonbank financial institutions?
commercial banks, credit unions
The unit of Chinese currency is known as _____.
The unit of Japanese currency is known as _____.
If an individual moves money from currency to a demand deposit account
M1 stays the same and M2 stays the same.
Recent financial innovation makes the Federal Reserve's job of conducting monetary policy
more difficult, since the Fed no longer knows what to consider money.
Income is based on a ______ concept and money as used in Econ 315 is based on a ______ concept.
The narrowest definition of money used in Econ 315 is ______.
The Federal Reserve Bank's definition of money or money supply is ______.
paper money and coins.
Which of the following statements uses the economists' definition of money?
I hope that I have enough money to buy my lunch today.
To an economist, ________ is anything that is generally accepted in payment for goods and services or in the repayment of debt.
anything that is generally accepted in payment for goods and services or in the repayment of debt.
Compared to an economy that uses a medium of exchange, in a barter economy
transaction costs are higher.
Dennis notices that jackets are on sale for $99. In this case money is functioning as a
unit of account.
Whatever a society uses as money, the distinguishing characteristic is that it must
be generally acceptable as payment for goods and services or in the repayment of debt.
Of the following assets, the least liquid is
If peanuts serve as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and a store of value, then peanuts are
When money prices are used to facilitate comparisons of value, money is said to function as a
unit of account.
_________ is a type of e-money that is linked to the bank account for immediate deduction of funds when used.
A debit card
If the price level doubles, the value of money
falls by 50 percent.
money no longer functions as a good store of value and people may resort to barter transactions on a much larger scale.
As the payments system evolves from barter to a monetary system,
commodity money is likely to precede the use of paper currency.
Which of the following sequences accurately describes the evolution of the payments system?
barter, coins made of precious metals, paper currency, checks, electronic funds transfers
________ money could be used for some other purpose other than as a medium of exchange, for example, gold coins could be melted down and turned into gold jewelry.
A smart card is the equivalent of
The gold standard for curency means that currency can be converted into gold at a specified rate. The main issue with the gold standard is: _______.
When too much gold is supplied, inflation tends to occur.
Bitcoin is _______.
a digital currency
Which of the following are the functions of money?
a store of value
a unit of account
If you borrow $2000 for two years at an annual interest rate of 5%, you will be paying back _______at the end of the second year. (Assume annual compounding.)
If an interest rate is expected to decrease, you would ______ Treasury bonds now _________ after the interest rate decrease.
buy; to earn a capital gain
If an interest rate is expected to decrease, which debt instrument would give you a larger capital gain if you buy now?
If an annual percentage rate (APR) is 10%, its corresponding semi-annual rate is _____ and quarterly rate is ______.
If the current market interest rate is 5% while a consol with a $5 annual coupon payment is being sold at $110, you would ________ the consol because it yields _______ the market interest rate.
not buy; less than
A consol is known as a ______ bond and makes ______ .
Perpetual; coupon payments forever
What is the price of a zero-coupon bond with a maturity of 2 years and a face value of $2,000 when the current market interest rate is 4%? Assume an annual coupon payment.
What is the price of a zero-coupon bond with a maturity of 3 years and a face value of $3,000 when the current market interest rate is 3%? Assume an annual coupon payment.
If you buy a 5-year, 5% coupon T-bond with a face value of $1,000 at a price of $1100 and sell it back a year later at a price of $1210, the current yield of this bond is _____ and the total rate of return is _____.
If you bought a 10-year, 10% coupon bond with a face value of $1,000 at a price of $950 and sold it back a year later at a price of $990, you would realize a capital gain (or loss) of ______.
If you bought a 10-year, 10% coupon bond with a face value of $1,000 at a price of $950 and sold it back a year later at a price of $990, you would realize the total rate of return of ______.
If you buy an IBM share at $200 and sell it back a year later at $180, your _____ would be ____.
capital loss; -10%
If you bought an IBM share at $200, received a $25 dividend, and sold it back at $210 a year later, your dividend yield would be _____.
If you are quoted of a quarterly interest rate of 0.8%, its annualized interest rate would be _____.
Holding all other things constant, when an interest rate (yield) decreases, a bond price ________.
Holding all other things constant, when a bond price decreases, an interest rate (yield) ________.
What is the return on a 5 percent coupon bond that initially sells for $1,000 and sells for $1,200 next year?
its semi-annual coupon payment is _______.
The coupon rate is ____________.
the interest rate that a bond will pay until its maturity.
If there is a 3-year $1,000 bond with a coupon rate of 4%,
Assume that you are in a 20% tax bracket. If a tax-exempt bond yields 8% and a taxable bond yields 9%, you would prefer to invest in _________.
the tax-exempt bond of 8%
Assume that you are in a 10% tax bracket. If a tax-exempt bond yields 5% and a taxable bond yields 6%, you would prefer to invest in _________.
the taxable bond of 6%
Assuming that the real interest rate is stable, if expected inflation ____, then the nominal interest rate will most likely _____ per the Fisher equation.
A par bond is found when ______.
the coupon rate (CR) = the current APR
A discount bond is found when ______.
the current bond price (BP) < the face value (FV)
A ________ pays the owner a fixed coupon payment every year until the maturity date, when the ________ value is repaid.
coupon bond; face
Which of the following are TRUE for discount bonds?
The purchaser receives the face value of the bond at the maturity date.
The concept of ________ is based on the common-sense notion that a dollar paid to you in the future is less valuable to you than a dollar today.
If the amount payable in two years is $2420 for a simple loan at 10 percent interest, the loan amount is
A discount bond is also called a ________ because the owner does not receive periodic payments.
For a 3-year simple loan of $10,000 at 10 percent, the amount to be repaid is
A $1000 face value coupon bond with a $60 coupon payment every year has a coupon rate of
Which of the following bonds would you prefer to be buying?
a $10,000 face-value security with a 10 percent coupon selling for $9,000
The ________ of a coupon bond and the yield to maturity (=market interest rate) are inversely related.
Assume that Bank A offers an APY of 5% and Bank B offers an APR of 5% if you open a 1-year certificate of deposit. Which bank would you deposit your money with if both banks calculate interest monthly?
Assume that Bank A offers an APR of 5% and Bank B offers an APY of 5% if you open a 1-year certificate of deposit. Which bank would you deposit your money with if both banks calculate interest monthly?
Compared to interest rates on long-term U.S. government bonds, interest rates on three-month Treasury bills change ________ frequently and are ________ on average.
The interest rate on a consol equals the
coupon payment divided by the price.
If you borrow $1,000 for two years at an interest rate of 4%, you will be paying back _______ at the end of the second year. (Assume quarterly compounding.)
If you bought an IBM share at $200, received a $25 dividend, and sold it back at $210 a year later, your total rate of return would be _____.
If you bought an IBM share at $120, received a $3 dividend, and sold it back at $110 a year later, your total rate of return would be _____.
The price paid for the rental of borrowed funds (usually expressed as a percentage of the rental of $100 per year) is commonly referred to as the
High interest rates might cause a corporation to ________ building a new plant that would provide more jobs.
An increase in interest rates might ________ saving because more can be earned in interest income.
The _______ frequently compounding occurs, the _______ the ending balance is.
An equal decrease in all bond interest rates
increases the price of a ten-year bond more than the price of a five-year bond.
An equal increase in all bond interest rates
decreases long-term bond returns more than short-term bond returns.
What is the price of a 10% coupon bond with a maturity of two years and a face value of $100,000 when the current market interest rate (= APR) is 11%? Assume annual compounding.
What is the price of a 10% coupon bond with a maturity of two years and a face value of $100,000 when the current market interest rate (= APR) is 12%? Assume annual compounding.
What is the price of a 10% coupon bond with a maturity of two years and a face value of $100,000 when the current market interest rate (= APR) is 5%? Assume annual compounding.
Which of the following is the correct expression to calculate Present Value via the Time-Value-of-Money Equation?
PV = FV/(1+r)^t
When there is a monthly compounding of interest, the APR (=annual percentage rate) is _______ the APY (=annual percentage yield).
Which of the following relationship between APR (=annual percentage rate) and APY (=annual percentage yield) is true?
APR=APY if no compounding
If the interest rate increases from 3.01% to 4.25%, the interest rate is increased by ________ basis points.
A decrease in wealth or income is _______ related to the change in the asset demand.
A change in the level of risk is _______ related to the change in the asset demand.
In the loanable funds framework, borrowers are known as _______ and lenders are known as ______.
bond issuers; bond demanders
bond issuers; investors
The loanable fund framework is called the ________ and uses ______ to understand the behavior of interest rates.
indirect approach; the bond market
Holding all else constant, if government deficit increases, the ______ curve of bonds will shift to _______.
supply; the right
Holding all else constant, if government deficit increases, the ______ curve of bonds will shift to _______.
supply; the right
Holding all else constant, if the risk of losing money from bond investment increases, the demand for bonds will ______ and the demand curve for bonds shift to ______.
decrease; the left
When the liquidity effect is _______ the combined force of the income, price level, and expected inflation effects, the interest rate will end up being ______ where it was at.
smaller than; higher than
larger than; lower than
In the loanable funds framework, the ________ curve of bonds is equivalent to the ________ curve of loanable funds.
In the figure above, the factor responsible for the decline in the interest rate is
an increase in the money supply.
Using the Liquidity Preference Framework, when the Fed ________ the money stock, the money supply curve shifts to the ________ and the interest rate ________, everything else held constant.
increases; right; falls
Using the Liquidity Preference Framework, when the price level falls, the ________ curve for money ________, and interest rates ________, everything else held constant.
demand; decreases; fall
Assume that stocks and Treasury bills are substitutes in investment. If stock prices are expected to drop dramatically, then, other things equal, the demand for stocks will ________ and that of Treasury bills will ________.
The demand for silver decreases, other things equal, when
the gold market is expected to boom.
Assume that bonds and gold are substitutes in investment. If prices in the diamond market become less volatile, all else equal, then the demand for diamonds ________ and the demand for gold ________.
When the price of a bond decreases, all else equal, the bond demand curve
does not shift.
A movement along the bond demand or supply curve occurs when ________ changes.
Everything else held constant, when the inflation rate is expected to rise, interest rates will ________; this result has been termed the ________.
rise; Fisher effect
During business cycle expansions when income and wealth are rising, the demand for bonds ________ and the demand curve shifts to the ________, everything else held constant.
Everything else held constant, an increase in the riskiness of bonds relative to alternative assets causes the demand for bonds to ________ and the demand curve to shift to the ________.
Which of the following effects are discussed in the liquidity preference framework?
Income effect and liquidity effect
Price level effect and expected inflation effect
It is possible that when the money supply rises, interest rates may ________ if the ________ effect is more than offset by changes in income, the price level, and expected inflation.
Of the four effects on interest rates from an increase in the money supply, the one that works in the opposite direction of the other three is the
When the growth rate of the money supply is increased, interest rates will fall immediately if the liquidity effect is ________ than the other money supply effects and there is ________ adjustment of expected inflation.
Milton Friedman's analysis of the impact of money supply change on the interest rate is a _______ analysis and that of John Maynard Keynes is a _______ analysis.
According to John Maynard Keynes, when government increases _______, the interest rate will tend to ______ in the short run.
money supply; decrease due to the liquidity effect
In the market for money, an interest rate below equilibrium results in an excess ________ money and the interest rate will ________.
demand for; rise
The demand curve for bonds has the usual downward slope, indicating that at ________ prices of the bond, everything else equal, the ________ is higher.
lower; quantity demanded
The supply curve for bonds has the usual upward slope, indicating that as the price ________, ceteris paribus, the ________ increases.
rises; quantity supplied
A situation in which the quantity of bonds supplied exceeds the quantity of bonds demanded is called a condition of excess supply; because people want to sell ________ bonds than others want to buy, the price of bonds will ________.
Which of the following is a characteristic of yield curves?
They tend to swell (move) up and down together.
Based on the Expectations Hypothesis, if the short-term interest rate in Year 1 is 5% and the same in Year 2 is expected to be 7%, the interest rate for a 2-year bond would be ______.
Based on the Expectations Hypothesis, if the short-term interest rate in Year 1 is 4% and the same in Year 2 is expected to be 6%, the interest rate for a 2-year bond would be ______.
When yield curves are downward sloping
short-term interest rates are above long-term interest rates.
When yield curves are steeply upward sloping
long-term interest rates are above short-term interest rates.
The typical shape for a yield curve is
gently upward sloping.
If 1-year interest rates for the next five years are expected to be 4, 2, 5, 4, and 5 percent, and the 5-year term premium is 1 percent, then the 5-year bond rate will be
If the expected path of 1-year interest rates over the next five years is 1 percent, 2 percent, 3 percent, 4 percent, and 5 percent, the expectations theory predicts that the bond with the highest interest rate today is the one with a maturity of
If investors expect interest rates to fall significantly in the future, the yield curve will be inverted. This means that the yield curve has a ________ slope.
The mound-shaped yield curve in the figure above indicates that the inflation rate is expected to
rise moderately in the near-term and fall later on.
The additional incentive that the purchaser of a Treasury security requires to buy a long-term security rather than a short-term security is called the
Given a yield curve, when the short-term interest rate is _____, the yield curve will tend to show a ______ slope.
TransUnion is a credit-rating company for ____.
If you are to borrow money (=U.S. dollars) outside the U.S. such as London, which of the following interest rate would be most directly relevant to you?
Which of the following long-term bonds has the highest interest rate?
corporate Baa bonds
Bonds with relatively low risk of default are called ________ securities and have a rating of Baa (or BBB) and above; bonds with ratings below Baa (or BBB) have a higher default risk and are called ________.
investment grade; junk bonds
If the risk-free rate is 2% and the interest rate on a risky asset is 3%, the risk premium is ____.
________ states that yield curves reflect the term-to-maturity premium such that a longer-term bond has a higher term premium.
The liquidity premium hypothesis
Municipal bonds have default risk, yet their interest rates are lower than the rates on default-free Treasury bonds. This suggests that
the benefit from the tax-exempt status of municipal bonds exceeds their default risk.
The spread between the interest rates on bonds with default risk and default-free bonds is called the
If the probability of a bond default increases because corporations begin to suffer large losses, then the default risk on corporate bonds will ________ and the expected return on these bonds will ________, everything else held constant.
Assume that corporate bonds and Treasury bonds are substitutes in investment. An increase in the riskiness of corporate bonds will ________ the price of corporate bonds and ________ the price of Treasury bonds, everything else held constant.
If the possibility of a default increases because corporations begin to suffer losses, then the default risk on corporate bonds will ________, and the bonds' returns will become ________ uncertain, meaning that the expected return on these bonds will decrease, everything else held constant.
As default risk increases, the expected return on corporate bonds ________, and the return becomes ________ uncertain, everything else held constant.
Assume that corporate bonds and Treasury bonds are substitutes in investment. An increase in the riskiness of corporate bonds will ________ the yield on corporate bonds and ________ the yield on Treasury bonds, everything else held constant.
A bond with default risk will always have a ________ risk premium and an increase in its default risk will ________ the risk premium.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A liquid asset is one that can be quickly and cheaply converted into cash.
Bonds with no default risk are called
default-free or risk-free bonds.
Assume that currently, the prime rate is 3% and the LIBOR is 2.9%. If Bank A charges you a prime rate + a risk premium of 2% and Bank B charges you a LIBOR + a risk premium of 2.2%, which bank would you borrow money from?
The interest rate on Baa corporate bonds is ________, on average, than interest rates on Treasuries, and the spread between these rates became ________ in the 1970s.