41 notecards = 11 pages (4 cards per page)
Fluid balance, fat absorption, and defense are functions of the ___________________.
Lymphatic system helps to absorb fat and other substances from the digestive system with the help of specialized vessels called ______________
______________ is a fluid similar to plasma or interstitial fluid but does not have plasma proteins.
Lymphatic capillaries have _________________ which are loosely attached and are therefore more permeable.
Lymph capillaries merge to form _____________ which have valves and are similar in structure to veins.
Lymph moves through the vessels with the help of milking action carried out by the _________________ and pressure changes created by the respiration
____________ is bean-shaped clusters of B and T cells found at intervals along the length of the vessels
As lymphatic vessels exit from lymph nodes, they merge and form _____________.
__________________ is the main collecting duct of the lymphatic system.
_________________ drains right side head, arm and chest. Empties into venous system at junction of right subclavian vein and right jugular vein.
Right lymphatic duct
_________________ make up 20–30% of circulating leukocytes
_____________ make up 80% of circulating lymphocytes.
________________ attack cells infected by viruses. Produce cell-mediated immunity
Cytotoxic T (TC) cells
_______________ is formed in response to foreign substance. Remain in body to give “immunity”
Memory T cells TM:
______________ stimulate function of T cells and B cells
Helper T (TH) cells:
________________ inhibit function of T cells and B cells
Suppressor T (TS) cells:
_______________ Make up 10–15% of circulating lymphocytes
___________ differentiate (change) into plasma cells which produce and secrete antibodies (immunoglobulin proteins).
_______________ responsible for immunological surveillance and attack foreign cells, virus-infected cells, and cancer cells
The spleen, lymph nodes and nodules are __________________________ (sites where the mature lymphocytes reside and carry out immune response)
Secondary Lymphatic organs
Red bone marrow and thymus gland are ____________________________. (where the lymphocytes originate and mature to become immunocompetent)
Primary Lymphatic organs
_____________________ are scattered throughout the lamina propria of mucous membranes lining the GI tract, respiratory airways, urinary tract, and reproductive tract.
Mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT):
_______________ are aggregates of lymphatic tissue in appendix and small intestines for protection
__________ large groups of nodules in the mucosa of the pharynx. Provide protection against bacteria entering the body through the mouth or nasal cavities.
A __________________ capsule surround each lymph node. Capsule extends in the lymph node as trabeculae.
dense connective tissue
Outer part of the node is called ____________ which is made up of lymphatic nodules containing lymphocytes and macrophages
Inner medulla is made up of irregular strands of lymphatic tissue called ________________.
Destroys defective RBCs, Detects and responds to foreign substances, Limited reservoir for blood are functions of the __________.
The spleen is often damaged in abdominal trauma. A _____________ may be required to prevent excessive bleeding.
__________ is lymphatic tissue around arteries in the spleen.
___________ is Lymphatic tissue associated with the veins in spleen
The depression on the Spleen where the splenic blood vessels enter and leave is called ________.
______________ Is defined as the ability to resist damage from foreign substances such as microorganisms and harmful chemicals.
_______________ is lack of resistance.
__________________ prevent entry, limit the spread of microorganisms or other environmental hazards.
Innate (nonspecific) defense mechanisms
Mucous membrane that lines the digestive respiratory and urogenital tract secrete a viscous mucus that prevents entry of potentially harmful microbes is a ________________.
In addition many of the secretions like saliva, tears etc. also contain proteins like __________ which digest cell wall of microbes and destroy it.
________________ are specialized cells that perform phagocytosis. Phagocytosis takes place in 5 steps chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, and killing.
Neutrophils and monocytes are cells involved in ______________________.
____________________ Is carried out by natural killer (NK) cells. They attack cancer cells and body cells infected with viruses.
_______________ are chemicals released by virus infected cells.