60 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates at some
point during their life cycle?
Why do adult urochordates (tunicates) lack notochords, even though
larval urochordates have them? Larvae use notochords to _____.
If a tunicate's pharyngeal gill slits were suddenly blocked, the
animal would have trouble _____.
Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as
Which of the following statements would be LEAST acceptable to most
Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest
chordates in appearance?
Vertebrates and tunicates share _____.
All chordates studied to date, except tunicates, share a set of
Which of the following characteristics is shared by a hagfish and a
A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely
resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics:
external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a
suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will
probably have which of the following characteristics?
The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are
associated with _____.
A team of researchers has developed a poison that has proven
effective against lamprey larvae in freshwater cultures. The poison is
ingested and causes paralysis by detaching segmental muscles from the
skeletal elements. The team wants to test the poison's effectiveness
in streams feeding Lake Michigan, but one critic worries about
potential effects on lancelets, which are similar to lampreys in many
ways. Why is this concern misplaced?
To reproduce, many plants produce seeds-structures containing
embryonic offspring along with nutrients inside a tough case. These
offspring develop after being released by the parent plant. To which
animal reproductive strategy is seed production most
Why do skates and rays have flattened bodies, while sharks are
Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between
sharks and ray-finned fishes?
The presence of a swim bladder allows the typical ray-finned fish to
stop swimming and still _____.
Which shark structure is closest in function to a swim bladder full
If a ray-finned fish is to both hover (remain stationary) in the
water column and ventilate its gills effectively, then what other
structure besides its swim bladder will it use?
How did the evolution of the jaw contribute to diversification of
early vertebrate lineages?
It is believed that the coelacanths and lungfish represent a crucial
link between other fishes and tetrapods. What is the major feature in
these fish in support of this hypothesis?
Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?
Which of these might have been observed in the common ancestor of
chondrichthyans and osteichthyans?
Arrange these groups in order from most inclusive (most general) to
least inclusive (most specific).
Suppose, while out camping in a forest, you found a chordate with a
long, slender, limbless body slithering across the ground near your
tent. This critter could be _____.
While on an intersession course in tropical ecology, Kris pulls a
large, snakelike organism from a burrow (the class was granted a
collecting permit). The 1-meter-long organism has smooth skin, which
appears to be segmented. It has two tiny eyes that are hard to see
because they seem to be covered by skin. Kris brings it back to the
lab at the field station, where it is a source of puzzlement to the
class. Kris says that it is a giant oligochaete worm; Shaun suggests
it is a legless amphibian; Kelly proposes it belongs to a snake
species that is purely fossorial (lives in a burrow).
The organism was found to have two lungs, but the left lung was much
smaller than the right lung. Kelly added that the herpetology
instructor had said that in most snakes, the same condition exists. If
the size difference between the lungs in this organism is not a shared
ancestral characteristic with its occurrence in snakes, then its
existence in this organism is explained as which of the
Which of the following could be considered the most recent common
ancestor of living tetrapods?
A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was
Fossils of the earliest tetrapods should _____.
Terry catches a ray-finned fish from the ocean and notices that
attached to its flank is an equally long, snakelike organism. The
attached organism has no external segmentation, no scales, a round
mouth surrounded by a sucker, and two small eyes. Terry thinks it
might be a marine leech, a hagfish, or a lamprey.
What is believed to be the most significant result of the evolution
of the amniotic egg?
Which structure of the amniotic egg most closely surrounds the
The evolution of similar insulating skin coverings such as fur, hair,
and feathers in mammals and birds is a result of _____.
Which of the following characteristics evolved independently in
mammals and birds?
Suppose you traveled back in time and located the first animals to
have evolved feathers. You found that these animals were tree-dwelling
ectotherms, able to run quickly but unable to fly. You also noticed
that only males had feathers. Which hypothesis of feather evolution
would these data most support? Feathers initially evolved in a role
associated with _____.
Mammals and birds eat more often than reptiles. Which of the
following traits shared by mammals and birds best explains this
Which characteristic is common to all the modern representatives of
all major reptilian lineages (turtles, lepidosaurs, crocodilians, and
Which of these are amniotes?
Due to its system of air sacs connected to the lungs, the respiratory
system of birds is arguably the most effective respiratory system of
all air-breathers. Upon inhalation, air first flows into posterior air
sacs, then into the lungs, and then into anterior air sacs on the way
to being exhaled. Thus, there is one-way flow of air through the
lungs, along thousands of tubules called parabronchi.
The one-way flow of air along parabronchi makes what type of gas
exchange mechanism possible, at least theoretically?
Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in
relatively dry environments?
Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended
directly from dinosaurs?
During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to
most recent) in which the following structures arose?
Which clade does NOT include humans?
Primate evolution and behavior, such as hunting skills, have been
directed in part by the development of depth perception. What
anatomical change made depth perception possible?
What group of mammals have (a) embryos that spend more time feeding
through the placenta than the mother's nipples, (b) young that feed on
milk, and (c) a prolonged period of maternal care after leaving the
Which of the following represents the strongest evidence that two of
the three middle ear bones of mammals are homologous to certain
Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group in
which all of the members have fully opposable thumbs?
Which of these would a paleontologist most likely do to determine if
a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?
Female birds lay their eggs, thereby facilitating flight by reducing
weight. Which "strategy" seems most likely for female bats
to use to achieve the same goal?
Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials _____.
On the back of your skull you can feel a small bump, below which is
an opening where the spinal cord enters the skull. The location of
this opening toward the bottom of the skull is significant in
evolutionary biology for what reason?
Brown et al. and Morwood et al. reported in 2004 that they had found
skeletal remains of a previously unknown type of hominin, now dubbed
Homo floresiensis, on the Indonesian island of Flores. These hominins
were small (approximately 1 meter tall) with small braincases
(approximately 380 cubic centimeters) as compared with other hominins.
The remains of H. floresiensis were found alongside handmade stone
tools and the remains of dwarf elephants that also inhabited the
island, suggesting that H. floresiensis was able both to make tools
and to coordinate the hunting of animals much larger than itself. H.
floresiensis is estimated to have lived at the site where the remains
were found from at least 38,000 years ago to 18,000 years
In what respect do hominins differ from all other
The table above is a comparison of several characteristics of H.
floresiensis to those of nine other hominin species (arranged roughly
from oldest to most recent). What do these data suggest?
Refer to the paragraph on Brown et al. and Morwood et al. It is
speculated that H. floresiensis and H. sapiens may have lived on
Flores concurrently. Suppose researchers obtained mitochondrial DNA
samples from the H. floresiensis remains, amplified a 1000-base-pair
sequence via PCR, and compared it to that of several currently living
H. sapiens native to Indonesia, North Africa, and North America. Also
suppose H. floresiensis were found to differ from the average
Indonesian H. sapiens in 28 base pairs, from the average North African
H. sapiens in 51 base pairs, and from the average North American H.
sapiens in 53 base pairs, while two randomly selected H. sapiens
differed from each other in an average of 21 base pairs. What would
you surmise from these data?
Arrange the following taxonomic terms in order from most inclusive
(most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
Which of these traits is most strongly associated with the adoption
Which of the following statements about human evolution is
With which of the following statements would a biologist be most
inclined to agree?