35 notecards = 9 pages (4 cards per page)
The _____ functions as the control center for the endocrine system.
C) adrenal gland
The letter "G" in HPG axis stands for
During puberty, levels of _____ increase much more in boys than in girls
During the adolescent growth spurt, different parts of the body change at different times and different rates a phenomenon called
B) the critical period.
One reason for the average difference in height between adult men and women is that
A) boys are older and hence taller when they enter the growth spurt.
B) androgens promote greater height than estrogen.
C) girls are shorter than same-age boys during childhood.
D) the Y chromosome in males programs greater height.
Typically, boys experience their first ejaculation fairly _____ in puberty, and girls experience their first menstrual period fairly _____ in puberty.
A) early- early
B) early- late
C) late- early
D) late- late
"Tanner stages" refers to
A) the sequence of changes in secondary sex characteristics during puberty.
B) the levels of melatonin found in the skin of adolescents from different backgrounds.
C) the growth and maturation of the long bones of the body.
D) the increased production of sebum that is linked to adolescent acne.
In most girls, the first outward indication of puberty is
A) the appearance of pubic hair.
C) the swelling of the breast bud.
D) the development of complexion problems.
In most boys, the first outward sign of puberty is
A) the growth of the testes and scrotum.
B) the appearance of facial hair.
C) the appearance of pubic hair.
D) register changes in the voice.
For boys, the first signs of puberty usually occur around age
Between 1900 and 1960, the average age of menarche in Canada and the United States dropped by about two months every decade. This is an illustration of the A) pubertal decline.
B) secular trend.
C) delayed phase preference.
D) lowered reaction range.
Historical evidence suggests that in Classical Greece and Rome, menarche
A) came somewhat later than it does in Europe and North America today.
B) came much later than it does in Europe and North America today.
C) came at roughly the same age as it does in Europe and North America today.
D) came somewhat earlier than it does in Europe and North America today.
Girls who have negative feelings about their breast development tend to attribute this to
A) the stress of having to leave childhood.
B) increased parental restrictions on their activities.
C) the hassle of having to dress modestly.
D) overt reactions from others, especially boys.
Boys who enter puberty earlier than their age mates
A) are seen and treated as more mature.
B) are more likely to get involved with drug and alcohol use
. C) have fewer problems with parents.
D) All of the above.
According to the _____ hypothesis, the effects of entering puberty markedly early or late result from the stress of being different from others in one's peer group.
A) stage termination
C) adult resemblance
With puberty, both boys and girls tend to have _____ closeness and _____ conflict with their mothers.
A) more- less
B) less- more
C) more- more
D) less- less
As compared to puberty rites for girls, puberty rites for boys tend to be more
A) enthusiastically celebrated
. B) focused on rules and taboos.
C) harsh and painful.
D) rapidly dying out.
During adolescence, the brain becomes more efficient and precise in its functioning, partly because of the increase in
The belief that complex processes must be explained in terms of more elementary processes is known as
Mood swings during adolescence
A) are the direct result of changes in hormone levels.
B) are no greater than those during childhood or adulthood.
C) reflect both a larger number of unpredictable events and a greater vulnerability to them.
D) are just as extreme in late adolescence as during puberty.
Among Canadian adolescent boys, _____ meet ‘moderate’ standards of physical activity.
A) more than three quarters
B) about two-thirds
C) less than half
D) fewer than one quarter
About _____% of Canadian adolescents eat too much unhealthy saturated fat.
What body system regulates puberty? What are the crucial elements in this system? How does it carry out its regulatory function?
Answer: The endocrine system regulates puberty by way of the HPG axis -- hypothalamus, pituitary, gonads -- which controls the levels of sex hormones, androgens (testosterone) and estrogens (estradiol). The HPG axis creates a feedback loop that keeps hormone levels at their set point. At puberty, the hypothalamus becomes less sensitive to sex hormones, which raises the set point.
How is the course of physical and sexual development during puberty different for girls and boys?
Answer: Girls enter puberty and the pubertal growth spurt about 2 years earlier than boys. As a result, while they are taller on average between 11 and 13, boys end up taller by mid-adolescence. Girls reach sexual maturity, or menarche, late in the course of pubertal development, but boys begin producing sperm early in puberty.
Shanti is one of the first girls in her school class to enter puberty. What are some of the ways in which this is likely to affect her? What explanations have been offered for these effects?
Answer: Girls who mature early tend to suffer for it. They are less popular with other girls, have lower self-esteem, and are more anxious and depressed. Explanations include the deviance hypothesis (those who deviate from the norm suffer for it), the stage termination hypothesis (girls who enter puberty early haven't had time to finish the tasks of childhood), and the adult resemblance hypothesis (girls who look more mature are likely to become involved early in deviant activities).
What are puberty rites? What social functions may they serve? How are
they usually different for girls and boys?
Answer: Especially in traditional cultures, a child’s entry into puberty is generally marked by special events called puberty rites. For girls, these generally include instruction on adult roles and rules, taboos, and sexual matters. Boys are often subjected to difficult and painful ordeal
What important health issues come forward during puberty? Discuss in detail how teens are affected and what might be done to help.
Answer: Health issues during puberty include mood swings; poor body image; insufficient sleep; poor nutrition; and lack of exercise. New issues and experiences, along with hormonal shifts, can create mood swings and heightened emotionality. Unhappiness with one’s changing body is common, especially among girls who read teen-oriented magazines, and can lead to serious eating problems. Many adolescents are chronically sleep-deprived. Too many skip meals and rely on high-fat fast food, resulting in an epidemic of teen obesity, and too few get even a minimum of physical exercise.
Among Canadian adolescent boys, _____ meet ‘moderate’ standards of
What proportion of Canadian adolescents eat at least one serving of
fruit a day?
According to the _____ hypothesis, entering puberty early is negative
for girls because they haven't had time to complete the psychological
tasks of childhood.
During the adolescent growth spurt, different parts of the body
change at different times and different rates; a phenomenon
The earliest phase of puberty, which begins before any outward
physical changes, is known as
Among Canadian adolescent boys, _____ meet ‘moderate’ standards of
Canadian teens spend _________ in sedentary activities every
In recent years, physical education classes in school when