18 notecards = 5 pages (4 cards per page)
The heart is in the mediastinum. Just what is the mediastinum?
Medial cavity of the thorax within which the heart, great vessels and the trachea are found
From inside to outside, list the layers of the Heart wall and the coverings of the heart.
•Endocardium – inside layer of the heart wall, sheet of endothelium, lines the heart chambers and covers the fibrous skeleton of the valves
What is the purpose of the serous fluid inside the pericardial cavity?
The slippery fluid allows the membranes to glide past one another, allowing the mobile heart to work in relatively frictionless environment
What is the function of the papillary muscle and the chordae tendineae?
Keep the AV valve flaps from reverting into the aorta
Which side of the heart acts as the pulmonary pump? The systemic pump?
The right side of the heart acts as the pulmonary pump and the left side acts as the systemic pump
Which of the following statements are true?
a)The left ventricle wall is thicker than the right ventricle wall.
Name the two main branches of the right coronary artery.
•Right Marginal Artery – serves the myocardium of the lateral side of the heart
For each of the following, state whether it applies to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, or both
a)Cardiac Muscle - Refractory period is almost as long as the contraction
Cardiac muscle cannot go into tetany. Why?
Because the absolute refractory period is almost as long as the contraction
Which part of the intrinsic conduction system directly excites ventricular myocardial cells? In which direction does the depolarization wave travel across the ventricles
purkinje fibers; the wave travels upwards from apex towards atria
Describe the electrical events in the heart that occurs during each of the following
a)The QRS wave of the ECG - ventricular depolarization
The second heart sound is associated with the closing of which valve(s)?
If the mitral valve were insufficient, would you expect to hear the murmur (of blood flowing through the valve that should be closed) during ventricular systole of diastole
During the cardiac cycle, there are two periods when all four valves are closed. Name these two periods
isovolumetric contraction phase and the isovolumetric relaxation phase
After running to catch a bus, Josh noticed that his heart was beating faster than normally and was pounding forcefully in his chest. How did his increased HR and SR come about?
Exercise activates the SNS, which increases heart rate and ventricular contraction, which increases stroke volume
What problem of cardiac output might ensue if the heart beats far too rapidly for an extended period, that is, if tachycardia occurs? Why
the amount of time for ventricular filling between contractions is decreased, which decreases EDV, SV, and therefore CO
Name the two components of the fetal heart that allow blood to bypass the lungs
foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus
In the past decade, many people over 70 have competed in the Ironman World Championships in Hawaii. In what way might age-related changes of the heart limit the performance of these athletes?
Sclerosis and thickening of heart valve flaps, a decline in cardiac reserve, fibrosis of cardiac muscle, and atherosclerosis