86 notecards = 22 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Beta oxidation is the initial phase of fatty acid oxidation, and it occurs in the cytoplasm.
FALSE Section: 24.5
2) The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.
3) Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals.
4) The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.
5) The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.
6) There are NO nutritionally complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a nutritionally complete protein.
7) The body is considered to be in nitrogen balance when the amount of nitrogen ingested in lipids equals the amount excreted in urine.
8) The amount of protein needed by each person is determined by their age, size, metabolic rate, and the need to build new proteins (whether the body is in positive nitrogen balance).
9) Vitamins are inorganic compounds that are essential for growth and good health.
10) Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.
11) The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.
12) Glycogenesis begins when ATP levels are high, and glucose entering cells is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate and converted to its isomer, glucose-1-phosphate.
13) Glycogen accounts for 80-85% of stored energy in the body.
14) In order for amino acids to be oxidized for energy, the amine group (NH2) must be removed.
15) When blood glucose levels are low, the body begins to use more noncarbohydrate fuels for energy production. This process is called glucose activation.
16) Processes that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are anabolic.
17) For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to glucose.
18) Triglycerides and cholesterol do NOT circulate freely in the bloodstream.
19) The major role of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) is to store energy in the form of fat.
20) It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.
21) Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways.
22) High levels of HDLs are considered good.
23) Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL concentrations.
24) Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant.
25) Peptides called NPY (neuropeptide Y) and AgRP (agouti-related peptides) are powerful appetite enhancers.
26) The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells.
1) The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________. A) glucose B) protein C) fat D) acetyl CoA
2) Which of the choices below is NOT a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body? A) amino acid synthesis B) direct conversion to a nucleic acid C) lipogenesis D) ATP production E) glycogenesis
3) Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body? A) protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation B) increase appetite and food intake C) promote weight loss with activity D) shrink fat stores
4) Cholesterol, though it is NOT an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________. A) is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones B) helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation C) helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs D) enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered
5) Which of the following statements best describes complete protein? A) derived from meat and fish only B) must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth C) derived only from legumes and other plant material D) meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet
6) The term metabolism is best defined as ________. A) a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories B) the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day C) the sum of all biochemical reactions in the body D) the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats
7) When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly ________. A) ammonia B) ketone bodies C) urea D) acetyl CoA
8) It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________. A) very few foods contain vitamins B) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients C) all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization D) vitamins provide protection against the common cold
9) Minerals required by the body in moderate amounts include all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) sulfur and potassium B) sodium and chlorine C) calcium and phosphorus D) iron and selenium
10) Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)? A) lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation B) glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain C) glycolysis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation D) gluconeogenesis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, lipolysis
11) Anabolism includes reactions in which ________. A) structural proteins are used as a potential energy source B) ketone bodies are formed C) carbohydrate utilization increases D) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
12) Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________. A) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones B) elevates glucagon levels C) builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state D) causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies
13) The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________. A) break down food molecules and generate ATP B) provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals C) efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body D) determine the amount of heat needed by the human body
14) The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________. A) fat utilization B) lipogenesis C) gluconeogenesis D) lipolysis
15) Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration? A) oxidative phosphorylation B) oxidation reactions C) lactic acid production D) substrate-level phosphorylation
16) Lipogenesis occurs when ________. A) glucose levels drop slightly B) excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane C) there is a shortage of fatty acids D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high
17) Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________. A) muscles B) brain C) liver D) blood
18) Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________. A) period when the metabolic rate is lowest B) postabsorptive state C) starvation period D) absorptive state
19) Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center? A) vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels B) sympathetic sweat gland activation C) increase in ADH production D) release of epinephrine
20) Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________. A) glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water B) glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate molecules C) glycogen is formed D) glycogen is broken down to release glucose
21) Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________. A) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid B) conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water C) formation of sugar D) conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water
22) What is the outcome of ketosis? A) glucogenesis B) water retention and edema C) metabolic acidosis D) glycogen buildup E) metabolic alkalosis
23) Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state? A) Only glucose metabolism occurs. B) Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones. C) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones. D) No metabolism occurs.
24) In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies B) production of energy C) formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes D) production of some hormones
25) The most abundant dietary lipids are ________. A) phospholipids B) fatty acids C) triglycerides D) cholesterol
26) The ingestion of which nutrient type results in the greatest food-induced thermogenesis? A) carbohydrates B) vitamins C) proteins D) lipids
27) Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state? A) epinephrine B) growth hormone C) thyroid hormone D) insulin
28) Prostaglandins play a role in ________. A) noninflammatory responses B) control of blood volume C) skeletal muscle contraction D) control of blood pressure
29) As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, the ________ continues to burn glucose while virtually every other organ in the body switches to fatty acids as its major energy source. A) pancreas B) spleen C) liver D) brain
30) In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose. A) glucagon B) glycerol C) glycogen D) acetyl Co A
31) In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state. A) pyruvic acid B) oxaloacetic acid C) glyceraldehyde D) ammonia
32) Which of the choices below is NOT a mechanism of heat production? A) enhanced thyroxine release B) sweating C) vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels D) shivering
33) Heat-loss mechanisms do NOT include ________. A) reducing activity B) the evaporation of sweat C) vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels D) behavior measures such as wearing light, loose clothing
34) The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining basal metabolic rate (BMR). A) prolactin B) norepinephrine C) ADH D) thyroxine
35) When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________. A) amino acids B) lactic acid C) glycogen D) fatty acids
36) Many factors influence basal metabolic rate (BMR). What is the most critical factor? A) an individual's body weight B) the way skeletal muscles break down glycogen C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body D) the way an individual metabolizes fat
37) The ________ acts as the body's thermostat. A) hypothalamus B) skin C) liver D) epithalamus
38) Which of the choices below is NOT a mechanism of heat transfer used by the body? A) shivering B) evaporation C) conduction/convection D) radiation
39) Which of the following statements is FALSE? A) Excess carbohydrate and fat can be stored as such, whereas excess amino acids are oxidized for energy or converted to fat or glycogen for storage. B) Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy. C) The amino acid pool is the body's total supply of amino acids in the body's proteins. D) Amino acids can be used to supply energy only after being converted to a citric acid cycle intermediate.
40) Which of the following is a source of complex carbohydrates? A) soda B) fruit juice C) potatoes D) pudding
41) Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized? A) vitamins and minerals B) proteins C) foods and beverages high in caffeine D) fats
42) Which of the following does NOT occur in the mitochondria? A) glycolysis B) electron transport C) formation of malic acid from fumaric acid D) citric acid (Krebs) cycle
43) Which of the following is NOT true of beta oxidation? A) Fatty acids are broken into acetic acid fragments. B) It involves the anabolism of fats. C) It occurs in the mitochondria. D) The carbon in the beta (third) position is oxidized during the process.
44) Select the correct statement about proteins. A) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested. B) All proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present. C) Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids. D) Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.
45) Oxidation reduction reactions ________. A) occur via the gain of hydrogen or the loss of oxygen B) utilize hydrogenases C) are rarely coupled together D) may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons
46) What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work? A) beta oxidation B) cellular respiration C) phosphorylation D) glycolysis
47) Which of the choices below is NOT a source of blood glucose during the postabsorptive state? A) absorption of glucose from the GI tract B) glycogenolysis in the liver C) lipolysis in adipose tissues and the liver D) catabolism of cellular protein
48) Which of the following is correct? A) Most of the ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. B) Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway. C) Each FADH2 yields about 1.5 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. D) Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.
49) Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins? A) egg yolk, fish roe, and grains B) corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ C) eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish D) lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals
50) Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________. A) ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea B) adequate essential amino acids C) adequate fat calories to provide adequate ATP formation D) excessive amounts of protein in the diet
51) Glucose can be obtained from ________. A) triglyceride anabolism B) glycogenolysis C) lipogenesis D) protein anabolism
52) Which of the following is NOT a function of low-density-lipoproteins (LDLs)? A) transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver B) make cholesterol available to tissue cells for membrane formation C) make cholesterol available to tissue cells for hormone synthesis D) assist in the storage of cholesterol when supply exceeds demand
53) Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance? A) A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis. B) It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat. C) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis. D) It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream.
54) Red blood cells lack mitochondria. As a result, ATP production is solely through ________. A) glycolysis B) electron transport chain C) citric acid (Krebs) cycle D) aerobic respiration
55) In India, rice is a large part of the diet. Lack of which vitamin in rice would lead to higher levels of blindness in this population? A) vitamin A B) vitamin E C) vitamin C D) vitamin D
56) Which term describes the action of an endurance runner the night before the race as she "carbo-loads" when eating a large pasta dinner? A) glycogenesis B) glycogenolysis C) glycolysis D) gluconeogenesis
57) Several hours after your last meal, declining blood glucose levels stimulate release of the hormone ________, which stimulates glycogenolysis, lipolysis and fat mobilization, and gluconeogenesis. A) glucagon B) thyroxine C) cortisol D) insulin
58) At the conclusion of glycolysis, most of glucose's chemical energy is found in the ________. A) NADH B) ATP C) acetyl CoA D) pyruvic acid molecules
59) While traveling abroad in Africa you observe a large number of people with goiter (enlarged thyroid). Which mineral deficiency could be responsible for this? A) iodine B) chromium C) fluorine D) iron
60) A recent health screening revealed a low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) level over 130. Which of the following should be prescribed? A) insulin B) statins C) iron D) glucagon