21 notecards = 6 pages (4 cards per page)
What are AAs buildingi blocks of?
Proteins, glucose, and ketones
What is physiological pH?
AA at neutral pH
AA that contain carbon backbones that can't be made by the body or can't make enough of in the body
-Can be synthesized because carbon skeletons can be make adequately from other precursors
Source of carbon skeletons
intermediates formed from glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle
Source of amino groups
-derived from NH3
How does the body maintain NH3 homeostasis?
liver converts excess NH3 into urea, which is then eliminated by the kidneys
What two AAs does the body use to both make use of available NH3 and get rid of excesss NH3
-NH3 (NH4+ in H20) can be added to alpha-ketoglutarate to make glutamate
asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase
-can be synthesized from glutamate
Kidney Excretion of NH4+
-Glutaminase releases NH3 from Gln (glutamine)
What enzyme release NH3 from glutamine?
What enzyme releases NH3 from glutamate?
What is NH3 excreted into the urine as?
Can excess AAs be stored in the body?
What organ degrades AAs?
What components are AAs degraded into?
-amino groups--> urea
Where is urea synthesized?
What happens if you have excess of NH3?
neurological sx, coma, death, neurological defects (mental retardation)