66 notecards = 17 pages (4 cards per page)
A term describing a cell that has the potential to specialize into many different types of cell
Describing a cell that can give rise to all parts of the embryo and adult, as well as extra embryonic membranes in species that have them.
Ability to give rise to only one other type of cell.
Terminally Differentiated Cell
A cell has become all it can be and cannot change anymore
Can cellular adaptation be a pathological response, functional response or both?
Cellular adaptation can be both.
Increase in SIZE and MASS of cells but not the number of cells
The increased production and growth of normal cells in a tissue or organ, resulting in an abnormal increase in size of the tissue or organ
Is it possible to experience both hypertrophy and hyperplasia?
The reversible replacement of one adult cell type with another adult cell type
AKA - atypical hyperplasia
 quiescence (ignore),  adapt,  divide and differentiate, and  die (necrosis/apoptosis).
If two people are exposed to the same stimulus, will they incur the same degree of cellular damage?
No because the pathos of individuals is different.
Chemicals that harm the bodies tissues by starting destructive chain reactions in the molecules of the bodies cells, such reactions are believed to trigger or worsen some diseases
Free Radical Formation
Mechanisms of injury
-Lipid peroxidation - the destruction of unsaturated fatty acids by free radicals
Molecules that neutralize free radicals, thereby preventing them from causing damage to cells
Molecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. Used in Free Radical Inactivation
A heavy metal; poorly absorbed by the body and slowly excreted; it replaces calcium in the bones; acts like calcium, iron and zinc; interferes with hemoglobin synthesis; increases the permeability of CNS membranes; most common poisoning amongst children under 6 years old; major sources(inhalation exposure or ingestion of particles, lead based paint, lead contaminated dust, lead contaminated bare soil, lead pipes)
Toxic Chemical Agents
Cellular injury is caused by direct contact with chemical agents, with the molecular components of the cell, formation of free radicals or lipid peroxidation.
A specific alcohol compound formed from the fermentation of dietary carbohydrates and used in a variety of alcoholic beverages
Blunt Force Trauma
Injuries are mechanical injuries resulting in tearing, shearing, or crushing of tissues.
An injury that doesn't break the skin but results in some discoloration - a bruise
The collection of blood under the skin as the result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. bruise
Removal of the superficial layers of the skin caused by contact between the skin and the injuring object (a rock or the cement after a bike fall)
A rip or tear when the elasticity of the skin or tissue will not hold up to the pressure applied by injuring object.
A cut that is longer than it is deep
Penetrating, sharp, cutting injury that is deeper than wide or long
Gunshot Wound (GSW)
Penetrating bullet remains in the body
A condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis
For adequate cellular function and integrity, adequate amounts of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are required.
-Extreme Temperatures (hypothermia, hyperthermia)
Below normal body temperature
Exceptionally high fever; when the body temperature grows too hot
Caused by atmospheric pressure
-Causes nitrogen to dissolve in the blood
-Any form of radiation that is capable of removing orbital electrons from atoms
Acute loud noise or the cumulative effect of loud noise over a period of time or by the cumulative effects of various intensities, frequencies and durations of noise.
Unwanted materials build - can be intracellular(more severe) or interstitial (less severe)
Reversibility of Cellular Injury
-Necrosis is local cell death and is irreversible
5 types of Necrosis
-Common in kidneys, heart and adrenal glands
Fungal/Bacterial infection leads to mushy liquid; Brain tissue normally dies by this as brain enzymes are released from dead cells causing tissue breakdown and liquefaction
Conversion of necrotic cells to an amorphous mass grossly resembling cottage cheese.
Strictly speaking this is not a different type of necrosis; it is used to describe variants of coagulation necrosis. It is usually localized to the soft tissue of the lower limbs that have been compromised by protracted hypoxia and ischemia (inadequate blood supply).
Programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death and destruction of the cell
Aging and Cellular Death Theories
Aging is caused by the accumulation of injurious events (environment)
Aging and Cellular Death Mechanisms
Genetic, environmental and behavioral
Death of an entire organism.
Decreased body temperature resulting in a lack of skin elasticity
A coloration of the skin of the lower parts of a corpse caused by the settling of the red blood cells as the blood ceases to circulate (peripheral tissues)
A condition associated with death results from the depletion of ATP and the progressive accumulation of cross bridges formed during muscle contraction
Swelling or bloating of the body and liquefactive changes occur sometimes opening body cavities
--The concept of a dynamic steady state and a turnover of bodily substances that maintains physiologic parameters within narrow limits.
--Deprives the cell of O2 and interrupts oxidative metabolism and the generation of ATP.
What can hypoxia result in?
--inadequate oxygen in the air
--Decreases cell substance and results in cell shrinkage.
Reperfusion (reoxygenation) injury
Reperfusion is a cause of injury in tissue transplantations and in myocardial, hepatic, intestinal, cerebral, renal and other ischemic syndromes.
--Produce injury by invading and destroying cells
Immunologic and Inflammatory Injury
--causes cellular injury
--Caused by physical impact or irritation
Theories of Aging
--Aging is caused by accumulations of injurious events which are sometimes called damage-accumulation theories.
Mechanisms of Aging
1) Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors produce cellular aging change
Alterations of cellular control mechanisms
A degenerative extracellular change which makes collagen more rigid and results in decreased cell permeability to nutrients.
A wasting syndrome of aging.