151 notecards = 38 pages (4 cards per page)
This scientists was the first to experiment with atoms.
This scientists discovered radioactivity.
This scientist was involved in the discovery of electrons and isotopes, invented mass spectrometer, and stated that all atoms are neutral.
This scientist discovered Alpha and Beta radiation and the nucleus.
This scientist was involved with the atomic bomb, nuclear fission, neutron.
This scientists created Shroedinger's equation.
Mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca
What are the prefixes in order?
What is zinc's charge always going to be?
What is silver's charge always going to be?
What are the two heavy metals whose charges we still must specify by roman numeral?
Electronegativity values _______ down a group and _______ across a period.
What kind of compound is created when two nonmetals bond together by sharing electrons?
True or False: Covalent compounds do not share electrons equally.
The _____ electronegative element will have greater attraction to the shared pair
(lone pair) of electrons than the ______ electronegative element in the bond.
This type of bond occurs when there is equal sharing between 2 atoms of the electrons in a bond.
A bond is _____ if its electrons are not shared equally.
A bond is _____ if its electrons are shared equally.
This type of bond occurs when there is unequal sharing between 2 atoms of the electrons in a bond.
This type of bond occurs when there is a complete transfer of electrons between 2 atoms in a bond.
This type of bond occurs when the electronegativity difference is less than 0.4.
This type of bond occurs when the electronegativity difference is greater than or equal to 0.4 and less than or equal to 1.6.
This type of bond occurs when the electronegativity difference is greater than or equal to 2.0.
Between the electronegativity difference of 1.7 and 2.0, if there is a metal then the bond is _______, if there are no metals then the bond is _______.
What is zinc's charge?
What is silver's charge?
What are the 2 heavy metals who still require the use of roman numerals in their names?
The central atom in a Lewis Structure is the ______ electronegative element that isn't ________.
Mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca
What are the prefixes in order for naming covalent compounds?
If an acid should end in -ide, change it to ______---___ acid.
If an acid should end in -ate, change the ending to ___.
If an acid should end in "ite", change the ending to ___.
If a molecule has 5 atoms and no lone pairs, then it has a _________ shape.
If a molecule has a tetrahedral shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).
If a molecule has 4 atoms and 1 lone pair, then it has a _________ shape.
If a molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).
If a molecule has 3 atoms and 1 or 2 lone pairs, then it has a _________ shape.
3, 1 or 2
If a molecule has a bent shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).
If a molecule has 4 atoms and 0 lone pairs, then it has a _________ shape.
If a molecule has a trigonal planar shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).
If a molecule has 3 atoms and 0 lone pairs, then it has a _________ shape.
If a molecule has a linear shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
What goes VSEPR stand for?
VSEPR states that lone pairs have _____ repelling forces than bonded pairs.
What is the name of BH3?
Is H2 polar or nonploar?
Do metals form cations or anions?
What is the bond angle of a compound with a tetrahedral shape?
What is the bond angle of a compound with a trigonal pyramidal shape?
What is the bond angle of a compound with a bent shape and 2 lone pairs?
What is the bond angle of a compound with a trigonal planar shape?
What is the bond angle of a compound with a bent shape and 1 lone pair?
What is the bond angle of a compound with a linear shape?
These forces occur between molecules, and hold one molecule to another.
These forces hold one atom to another within a molecule.
Intramolecular forces are ________ than intermolecular forces.
Carbon likes to have how many bonds?
meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, nona, dec
What are the prefixes in order for the number of carbons 1-10?
-ane means _______-bonded carbon.
-ene means _______-bonded carbon.
-yne means _______-bonded carbon.
When numbering, you want to start numbering on the side that will make the number as _______ as possible.
________ are hydrocarbons containing only C and H and have all single bonds.
________ contain a C = O group.
________ contain an O - H group.
When drawing the arrow to represent dipole movement, the arrow points towards the _______ end of the molecule and has a plus on the _______ end of the molecule.
The Dipole-Dipole intermolecular force occurs between ______ molecules.
The Hydrogen Bonding force occurs between ______ molecules and is basically the same as dipole-dipole, but is much stronger.
O--H, N--H, F--H
Order the three types of hydrogen bonding from strongest to weakest.
Form: X--H, Y--H, Z--H
Induced Dipole, weakest
London Dispersion, also known as _______ _______, is the _______ intermolecular force.
London Dispersion occurs between _______ molecules.
London Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding
Order the three types of intermolecular forces from lowest to highest boiling point.
A higher mass results in a ______ boiling point.
Ketones ends in ______.
Alcohols end in ______.
When a single carbon group is attached to a longer chain, it is called a ______.
If we have a carbon chain in the shape of a ring, we put ______ in front.
14, single, 4, 6th
6-butyl tetradecane has ___ carbons, all ______ bonds, and a group of ___ carbons branching off of the __ carbon.
7, single, 3, 2nd
2-propyl heptane has __ carbons, all ______ bonds, and a group of ___ carbons branching off of the __ carbon.
Given 1-propanol, we assume that the OH will branch off of the __ carbon.
Alkane, Ketone, Alcohol
Order the following from lowest to highest boiling point, assuming all have the same mass: Alkane, Ketone, Alcohol
This is the resistance of a liquid to flow. It is the ease with which molecules move past each other.
The larger the molecule, the _______ viscous it is, due to greater dispersion forces.
This results from the net inward force experienced by molecules on the surface of a liquid.
Pulling the molecules farther apart
The heat added to a substance after it passes its melting or boiling point goes into __________.
This is the pressure of the vapor on the surface of a liquid. It tells us when something will boil.
The higher the vapor pressure, the _______ a molecule evaporates.
Vapor pressure, atmospheric pressure
Boiling point is the point at which ___________ = ___________.
This displays the state of a substance at various pressures and temperatures and the places where equilibria exist in between.
This is how quickly a substance evaporates.
If a substance evaporates quickly, it has a ______ viscosity.
Which law states that as volume remains constant, pressure increases with temperature?
Which law states that as temperature remains constant, volume decreases as pressure increases?
Which law states that as pressure remains constant, volume increases with temperature?
________ are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances.
In a solution, the _______ is dissolved uniformly throughout the _______.
Nonsoluuble solids have very ______ (weak or strong) intramolecular forces, because the forces between its own particles are ______ (weaker or stronger) than the forces between it and a solvent's particles.
Solvent, solute, solvates
As a solution forms, the ______ pulls ______ particles apart and surrounds, or _______, them.
If an ionic salt is soluble in water, it is because the ion-dipole interactions are strong enough to overcome the _______ energy of the salt crystal.
Liquids dissolved in other liquids are called ________.
When 2 liquids mix, they are said to be ________.
When 2 liquids do not mix, they are said to be _________.
Solid, liquid, gas, liquid
Liquid solutions can be a ______, _______, or ______ dissolved in a _______.
Solutions in which water is the solvent are called ______ solutions.
A ____ ______ consists of 2 gases dissolved in one another.
This is a mixture of 2 or more metals.
Dissolution is a ________ change.
In a ________ solution, the solvent holds as much solute as is possible at that temperature.
If a solution is ________, the solvent has not dissolved all of the solute that is possible at that temperature.
In a _________ solution, the solvent holds more solute than is normally possible at that temperature.
Polar substances tend to dissolve in ______ substances.
Nonpolar substances tend to dissolve in _______ substances.
Generally, an increase in temperature will _______ solubility and rate of solution of most solid and liquid solutes, but will ______ the solubility and rate of solution of gaseous solutes.
Decreasing particle size ______ the rate of solution.
Stirring ______ the rate of solution.
In general, the solubility of gases in water ______ with increasing mass.
For gases only, increasing pressure _______ solubility. Pressure does not affect liquid and gas solutes.
This is the escape of gas from a liquid at lower pressures.
Increasing surface area _______ the rate of solution.
As amount of solute dissolved increases, the rate of solution ________.
Rate of Solution
This is a measure of how fast something dissolves. It is the quantity of of solute that will dissolve during one unit of time.
The ________ of a solution depends on the proportion of solute to solvent.
The more solute there is dissolved in a solvent, the more _________ the solution.
The solvent that is present, the more ________ the solution.
This gives the percent weight of the solute in a solution.
Weight of Solute, Weight of Solution
Weight Percent = ____________/____________ x 100%
The _______ of a solution is the quantity of solute in moles per liter of solution.
The unit of molarity is ___.
Moles of solute, L of solution
Molarity = ____________/____________
Moles of solute, kg of solvent
Molality = ____________/____________
_________ is not affected by temperature. (Molarity/Molality)
The ________ model postulated that acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution, whereas bases produce hydroxide ions.
Bronsted-Lowry, donor, acceptor
In the ____________ model, an acid is a proton _______ (donor/acceptor), and a base is a proton _______ (donor/acceptor).
Proton, base, conjugate acid, conjugate base
According to the Bronsted-Lowry model, the acid donates a ______ to the ______ to form the a new acid, the ________ ________, and a new base, the ________ ________.
The ________ is everything that remains of the acid molecule after a proton is lost.
The _________ is formed when the proton is transferred to the base.
Conjugate acid-base pair
A _____________ consists of 2 substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton.
H3O+ is the _______ ion.
An _________ substance can gain or lose protons; can be both an acid and a base.
According to the Lewis model, acids are electron pair ________, and bases are electron pair ________.
Protons, electron pairs
Acids donate _______ and accept ___________.
A pH of __ is neutral.
pH = _______.
[H+] * [OH-] = ______.
pOH = _______.
pH + pOH = ___.
How do you calculate molarity given pH?
If there are more hydrogens than hydroxides, you have a(n) _______ solution.
pH decreases as [H+] ________, so a lower pH means a more ______ solution.
pH increases as [OH-] ________, so a higher pH means a more ______ solution.