20 notecards = 5 pages (4 cards per page)
What does the text say an argument is?
A certain type of communication that strives to convince a listener that is true or reasonable
What is the difference between induction and deduction?
Induction: gathering evidence
Deduction: absolute truth and using this ad a premise
What are the logical fallacies given in the text? Define and give an example of each.
What are the three parts of the soul for Plato? Describe each part of the soul and how it relates to the other parts of the soul.
reason: to pull away from things wr desire realizing it would be bad for you, when reason rules the person is wise
Willpower: our spirit, when spirit controls the appetite, the person is brave
Appetite: desires, needs and wants, when the Shoots afte in control the person is temperate
Can an unjust person be happy? Why/why not?
An unjust person can't be happy, only a well balanced person, wise, brave and temperate
What is the metaphor from the Phaedrus that Socrates uses and what does it mean?
The side relationship, the charioteer is reason, the well behaved horse willpower, and the wild horse appetite.
Balanced individuals have total poorer control by reason and willpower oldet appetite
What are the four virtues that result from a well aligned soul? Relate each virtue to its corresponding element
Wisdom -corresponds to- reason
Courage -corresponds to- Willpower
Temperance -corresponds to- Appetite
In what way does the soul of a person reflect the state?
Philosophy kings to reason and wisdom, auxiliaries is will power, private citizens to appetite
What are the four causes? Explicate. Which is the most important? Why?
final cause, because it allows us to understand the purpose of a thing
What is the first instantiation of the Categorical Imperative? State it and explain it.
Always act so that you can will that your maxim can become a universal law
What does it mean that it is Categorical?
Absolute applies to everyone, everywhere at all times
What does it mean that it is Imperative?
You have a duty to do it
What is a maxim?
The principle rule for the action
Explicate how the text explains how the Categorical Imperative is used to determine whether an action is immoral or moral.
This method of determining whether an action is moral or immoral regardless of context or situation is known as an a priori method. That is Latin for ‘to the prior’ and it means that one can determine the morality of an action prior to knowing the context or the situation.
1. Ask yourself what you want to do
2. Turn into maxim or principle of action
3. Universalize it
What is the harm principle?In what way are tyranny and democracy problematic?
What is difference feminism? According to this theory, how do women survive in a male-dominated public sphere?
believes that women and men possess fundamentally different qualities and that both genders should learn from each other.
Only if they wre willing to give up some of their female values
How do Aristotle, Kant, Rousseau, and Nietzsche see men as different from women?
Aristotle: beloved that women wre deformed men
Kant: found it thoroughly improper for a woman to display any interest in intellectual or technological pursuits, even if she might be good at them
Rousseau: saw a woman as a man's helpmate and little elder
Nietzsche admired women for being more natural than men but vilified then fire being inconsistent
What did John Stuart Mill say about gender equality and how has that influenced feminism?
Although Men and women have different capacities, they should nevertheless br given equal opportunities and equal respect for their abilities
What values does the difference feminist say we typically celebrate and what do they think should be done about this?
Make values, replace the image of one of the genders being more normal than the other with an image of both genders, being equally representative of the human race
What are typical male/female virtues?
Male: justice, rights, fairness, competition, independence and adherence to the rules
Female: generosity, caring, harmony, reconciliation and maintenance of close relationships