54 notecards = 14 pages (4 cards per page)
Everything consists of DNA
Why is DNA or the genetic code considered to be "universal"?
Blueprint for making proteins
What is the role of DNA in protein production?
They translate RNA to protein
What is the role of ribosomes in protein production?
Double helix with ladder bases
What are the two descriptions given to DNA structure?
Phosphate group, sugar, nitrogen base
What are the three components of a nucleotide?
Phophate and sugar
What makes up the "backbone" of DNA?
Is complementary base pairing in replication, transcription, and/or translation?
What is the process in which the DNA molecule separates into two strands and uses them to produce two complementary strands?
What type of bond connects nitrogen bases together?
What type of bond connects amino acids together?
What type of bond connects the sugars and phosphates together?
DNA -> RNA -> protein
What is the central dogma of biology?
What is a stretch of DNA or RNA?
Nitrogen base, nucleotide, DNA, gene, chromosome, nucleus, cell
Order these from smallest to largest:
What is the process in which RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands and uses one strand as a template?
What are sequences of nucleotides not involved in coding for proteins?
What are sequences of nucleotides that are involved in coding for proteins?
What is the process in which the cell uses mRNA to produce proteins and decodes it into polypeptide chains? The amino acid is brought in by tRNA, which has an anticodon.
When looking for the specific protein a DNA strand codes for, what strand do you use? Do you use the DNA, mRNA, or anticodon strand?
Start and stop codons
How does the ribosome know when and where to begin the translation, and where to halt the translation?
Methionine, or AUG
What is the start codon?
UAA, UAG, UGA
What are the stop codons?
How many codons are in the following mRNA strand:
How many polypeptide chains would form in the following mRNA strand:
UAC CUU GCA AUC UAC CGG ACU
What is the tRNA anticodon strand for the following mRNA strand:
Which is first, translation or transcription?
Nice way to remember transcription and translation:
Does DNA leave the nucleus?
How many strand(s) does DNA have?
How many strand(s) does RNA have?
What is the different base that RNA uses?
One less oxygen
What is different about the sugar in DNA from RNA?
How many types of DNA are there?
How many types of RNA are there?
Through where does mature mRNA leave the nucleus?
What enzyme uncoils the DNA molecule in replication?
What enzyme unzips the DNA molecule in replication?
What enzyme seals the DNA molecule after replication is done?
What enzyme finds, checks, and corrects the complementary bases in replication?
What is the pentagon in the DNA structure?
What is the circle in the DNA structure?
What does adenine pair with?
What does cytosine pair with?
What does guanine pair with?
What does thymine pair with?
The number of adenines is approximately equal to what nitrogenous base?
The number of guanines is approximately equal to what nitrogenous base?
%A = %T and %C = %G
What does Chargaff's rules state?
Histones and DNA
What are nucleosomes made up of?
Where does replication occur?
Adenine and guanine
What are the purines?
How many rings do purines have?
Cytosine and thymine
What are the pyrimidines?
How many rings do pyrimidines have?