50 notecards = 13 pages (4 cards per page)
An explanation of aggression in terms of instinct would have the most difficulty accounting for:
B)wide cultural variations in aggressiveness.
The presence of observers improves a person's performance on ________ tasks and hinders a person's performance on ________ tasks.
In which of the following groups is social loafing least likely?
C)factory workers who are each paid on the basis of the number of bicycles each assembles individually
Blindfolded subjects were observed to clap louder when they thought they were clapping alone than when they thought they were clapping with others. This best illustrates:
The text indicates that the clusters of teenage suicides that occasionally occur in some communities may be the result of:
The country of Danasia increased the size of its military force because its leaders inappropriately anticipated that their rival, the country of Wallonia, would do the same. The Wallonians subsequently felt it was necessary to respond to the Danasian military buildup with a military expansion of their own. The Wallonian response best illustrates the danger of:
High rates of violence are most common among those who experience minimal levels of:
Diego has become increasingly involved in violent fights at school because this gains him the attention and respect of many classmates. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is a(n):
The concept of a superordinate goal is best illustrated by:
B)the efforts of management and labor to produce a fuel-efficient automobile that will outsell any car on the market.
Research on the biology of aggression has clearly demonstrated that:
C)animals can be bred for aggressiveness.
Social facilitation is most likely to occur in the performance of ________ tasks.
Groupthink can be prevented by a leader who:
B)invites outside experts to critique a group's developing plans.
The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between ________ and liking.
On which of the following tasks would the presence of observers be least likely to lead to better and faster performance?
E)solving a crossword puzzle
Group polarization refers to:
D)the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.
After the Greenway family accepted their neighbor's invitation to Thanksgiving dinner, Mrs. Greenway felt obligated to invite the neighbors to Christmas dinner. Mrs. Greenway's sense of obligation most likely resulted from:
C)the reciprocity norm.
When Armen first heard the hit song “Back to Basics,” he wasn't at all sure he liked it. The more often he heard it played, however, the more he enjoyed it. Armen's reaction illustrates:
E)the mere exposure effect.
Cross-cultural research on gender relations indicates that:
C)people perceive their fathers as more intelligent than their mothers despite gender equality in intelligence scores.
Six-year-old Ezra believes that boys are better than girls, while 5-year-old Arlette believes that girls are better than boys. Their beliefs most clearly illustrate:
Evidence that people exhibit heightened levels of prejudice when they are economically frustrated offers support for:
D)the scapegoat theory.
Marilyn judges her professor's strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates:
E)the fundamental attribution error.
Bart complied with his friends' request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the:
Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of:
E)role-playing on attitude change.
In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride's family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of:
B)normative social influence.
The level of obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when the “teacher” was ________ the experimenter and ________ the “learner.”
C)close to; far from
Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates:
When a group of high school students who were all prejudiced discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates:
Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fairminded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate:
When visiting the Bergin-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, “What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment.” This reaction is best explained in terms of:
C)the just-world phenomenon.
After extensive exposure to X-rated sexual films, men are subsequently ________ accepting of women's sexual submission to men and _______ likely to perceive a woman's friendliness as sexual interest.
Max fails to recycle his glass, metal, and plastic garbage because he thinks it's personally inconvenient and likely to have minimal impact on the city's already overflowing landfills. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of:
D)a social trap.
When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of:
B)the mere exposure effect.
Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?
D)the scapegoat theory
Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in:
C)the bystander effect.
The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of:
The fundamental attribution error involves:
D)underestimating situational constraints on another's behavior.
Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite his having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student's abilities?
A)cognitive dissonance theory
Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated:
B)the chameleon effect.
Using the Asch procedure, studies reveal that conformity to group judgments is least likely when:
B)participants are not observed by other group members when giving their answers.
In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought:
C)no others were pulling with them.
Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda's unusual behavior is best understood in terms of:
Groupthink is fueled by a desire for:
Following Germany's defeat in World War I and the economic chaos that followed, many Germans experienced increasing levels of prejudice toward Jews. This surge of hostility can best be explained in terms of the
Shortly after Alex learned that he had failed to make the high school football team, he vandalized the team's locker room and broke several classroom windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of:
E)the frustration-aggression principle.
Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the other country's actions as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates:
When asked how much they like various letters of the alphabet, people tend to prefer those that happen to be found in their own names. This best illustrates the impact of:
Compared to less attractive people, those who are physically attractive are least likely to be perceived as very:
Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of:
The neighbors' failure to call the police in time to save the life of Kitty Genovese best illustrated:
E)the bystander effect.
After Mrs. Chanski and her children had helped themselves to free samples of the cookies being promoted in the grocery store, she felt obligated to buy some, even though they seemed unreasonably expensive. Her reaction best illustrates the significance of:
B)the reciprocity norm.