38 notecards = 10 pages (4 cards per page)
Initial Reference Point
Body in standard anatomical position (body erect, feet slightly apart, and palms facing forward with thumbs pointing away from the body)
Toward the head end or the upper par of a structure or the body; above.
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below.
Toward the front end of the body; in front of.
Toward or at the back of the body; in behind of.
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of.
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.
Closer to the origin of the body part of the point of attachment.
Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment.
Toward or at the body surface.
Away fro the body surface; more internal.
Regional Terms: axial part
Head, neck, and trunk.
Regional Terms: appendicular part
Appendages or limbs attached to axis.
Used to designate specific areas within the axial or appendicular part of the body.
Vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal (media) plane :
Parasagittal plane :
Frontal (coronal) Plane
Vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
From right to left dividing the body into superior and inferior parts (cross-section).
Dorsal Body Cavity: cranial cavity
Enclosed by the skull and houses the brain.
Dorsal Body Cavity: vertebral (spinal) cavity
Enclosed by vertebral column and houses the spinal cord.
Ventral Body Cavity: thoracic cavity
Two lateral pleural cavities (lungs) and a central pericardial cavity (heart).
Ventral Body Cavity: abdominopelvic cavity
Superior abdominal cavity (stomach, intestines, spleen, liver) and inferior pelvic cavity (bladder, some reproductive organs, rectum). There is no physical divider between the two allowing organs to overlap in sections.
Ventral Body Cavity
Composed of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities which are separated by the diaphragm.
4 Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Right upper quadrant
Right lower quadrant
Left upper quadrant
Left lower quadrant
9 Abdominopelvic Regions
Right hypochondriac region
Right lumbar region
Right iliac (inguinal) region
Hypogastric (pubic) region
Left hypochondriac region
Left lumbar region
Left iliac (inguinal) region
Connective tissue proper [fat, fibrous tissue of ligaments], cartilage, bone, or blood. Largely nonliving extracellular matrix which separates the living cells of a tissue to bear weight, withstand great tension, or endure physical trauma and abrasion.
Ground substances (unstructured material that fills the space between cells and contains the fibers) and fibers.
Unstructured material that fills the space between cells and contains the fibers.
- avascular (devoid of nerve fibers)
- ground substance contains lots of the GAGs (chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and chondronectin (adhesive protein))
- collagen fibers (can have some elastic fibers that makes more flexible; ears)
- up to 80% H2O - why they are so flexible in general
The cartilage layer surrounding cartilage containing blood vessels which provide nutrients to cartilage. In damaged areas, it forms scar tissue as it is poorly vascularized cartilage so it repairs badly; ossification of cartilage with aging.
Immature cartilage cells that actively form cartilage.
Mature cartilage cells that maintain cartilage.
Small localized cavities with clusters of chondrocytes in cartilage. This is where osteocytes are found.
The most abundant form of cartilage that provides firm support/reindorcement and pliability (resilient cushioning and resistance to compressive stress) due to lots of collagen. It appears glassy blue-white in colour. Chondrocytes are only 1-10% of the volume.
Found in the embryonic skeleton, ends of long bones, costal cartilages of ribs, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx...
Is like hyaline cartilage, but contains more elastic fibers to maintain shape while giving lots of flexibility.
Found in the external ear (change direction and position to focus hearing in animals) and epiglottis (must be strong and flexible).
Produced from rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers acting as the strucural intermediate between hyaline cartilage and dense regular connective tissue (more fibers than normal). Provides tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock.
Found in the intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis (during pregnancy), disks of the knee joints [meniscus] (where hyaline cartilage meets a ligament or a tendon to give more stability to the knee)
*no disk between C1 an C2
Location of Loose Cartilage
EC: External ear and epiglottis
FC: intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joints
HC: Everything else
Bone [osseous tissue]
A living dynamic tissue which responds to its environment (amount of force applied - increases both the density and the amount of roughening on bone or decreasing) and stores calcium (reabsorbed and transferred to bloodstream when needed). Functions are to provide support, protection, allow movement, mineral and growth factor storage (calcium and phosphate), blood cell formation (hematopoiesis), fat storage, and hormone production (osteocalcin - regulates insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis, energy expendine).
Hard, calcified, and very well vascularized. Composed of a matrix containing many collagen fibers. Cells: osteoblast, osteocytes (in lacunae), and osteoclasts.