RAD 113 Test 6 Study Guide

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Pharmocology, Principles of Drug Administration, Contrast Media & Introduction to Radiopharmaceuticals
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1

Drugs that relieve pain without causing a loss of consciousness.

Analgesics

2

Two groups analgesics can be divided into.

  • Nonopioids (nonnarcotics)
  • Opioids (narcotics)
3

Condition of shock caused by hypersensitivity to a drug or other substance that results in life-threatening respiratory distress and vascular collapse.

Anaphylaxis

4

Drug name that is usually descriptive of its chemical structure but is not protected as is a trademark.

Generic name

5

Drugs, natural or synthetic, that have activity similar to that or morphine.

Opioids

6

Study of the metabolism and action of drugs with particular emphasis on the time required for absorption, duration of action, distribution in the body, and method of excretion.

Pharmacokinetics

7

Study of drugs and their origin, nature, properties, and effects on living organisms.

Pharmacology

8

List the drug classifications.

  • Classification by Action or Function
  • Legal classifications
9

A dose form in which one or more drugs in small particles are suspended in a liquid carrier.

Suspension

10

A dose form in which one or more drugs are dissolved in a liquid carrier.

Solution

11

Administration that includes any injection of the drug with a needle and syringe beneath the surface of the skin.

Parenteral

12

Allow high concentrations to be deposited in the respiratory mucosa and exert action by producing bronchodilation or reducing inflammation.

Used to treat asthma and COPD

Inhalant

13

Name given to the drug when it becomes commercially available.

Generic

14

Name given to a drug manufactured by a specific company.

Brand

15

Name used to indicate a specific generic drug manufactured by several different companies.

Trade name

16

Movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood.

Absorption

17

Drug movement from the blood to various tissues and organs of the body.

Distribution

18

Chemical alteration of various substances.

Metabolism

19

Movement of drugs out of the body.

Excretion

20

Three classes of administration routes.

  • Enteral

(Oral, Rectal, Vaginal)

  • Parenteral

(Intramuscular, Intravenous, Subcutaneous, Intradermal)

  • Topical
21

Involves infusion via an IV assembly and is used for large volumes of fluid administered.

Drip infusion

22

Measurement of the number of particles that can crowd out water molecules in a measured mass of water.

Most adverse reactions to contrast result from this.

Osmolality

23

Enhance subject contrast in anatomic areas where low subject contrast exists.

Classified as negative or positive.

Contrast media

24

Type contrast agent that decrease attenuation of the x-ray beam and produce areas of increased density on the radiograph.

Negative

25

Type of contrast agent that increases attenuation of the x-ray beam and produce areas of decreased density on the radiograph.

Positive

26

List the general types of contrast agents and compare each.

  • Radiolucent

-Called negative contrast agents

-X-ray photons are easily transmitted or scattered

-They appear dark on a radiograph

-These media are composed of elements with low atomic numbers

-Administered as gas (air)

  • Radiopaque

-Called positive contrast agents

-X-ray photons are absorbed by radiopaque contrast media because these media are opaque to x-rays

-Appear light on radiograph

-These media are composed of elements with high atomic numbers

  • Specialty Contrast Agents

-Special contrast agent for ultrasound - Microbubbles

-Special contrast agent for MRI - Gadolinium-DTPA

27

Popular contrast choices and atomic numbers for each.

  • Barium sulfate (atomic # 56)
  • Air/gas (atomic # 53)
  • Oil-based iodine contrast agents
  • Water-soluble iodine contrast agents

(Iodine average atomic # 8)

28

Depending on the environment of the barium sulfate, such as acid within the stomach, the powder has a tendency to clump and come out of suspension.

What is this action called?

Flocculation

29

List what makes a perfect contrast material.

  • Very-high contrast visualization
  • Extremely low toxicity to patient
  • Persistence in patient anatomy until imaging is completed
  • Low cost
  • Minimal or no side effects
  • No residual effects within patient
30

Differentiate between ionic and nonionic contrast agents.

  • Ionic

-Dissociates into two ions; Anion (negative)/Cation (positive)

-High osmolality

-Adverse reactions are most often associated with ionic

  • Nonionic

-Does not dissociate into two ions and less toxic at cellular level

-More water soluble (hydrophilic)

-Increased solubility in plasma

-Low osmolality

-Warmed to increase viscosity

-Less likely to cause patient reaction and is more tolerable by patients

31

Should be discontinued for 48 hrs before and 48 hrs after the use of iodine contrast media.

Metformin (Glucophage)

32

List the categories of patient reactions and list examples of each.

  • Mild

-Nausea -Vomiting -Cough -Warm feeling -Headache -Dizziness -Shaking -Itching -Sweats -Urticaria (hives)

  • Moderate

-Tachycardia -Bradycardia -Hypertension -Hypotension

-Dyspnea -Bronchospasm -Wheezing -Laryngeal edema

  • Severe

-Convulsions -Profound hypotension -Cardiac arrhythmias

-Unresponsiveness -Cardiac arrest

33

Radioactive material chemically attached to a pharmaceutical that is metabolized in the body (attached to a radioisotope).

Detected by gamma camera in nuclear department and are effective for cellular physiology assessment.

Radiopharmaceuticals

34

Leakage from a vessel into the tissue.

Extravasation