Research

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1

Define 'primary source'

original, first-hand accounts of an event or raw data from the original research

2

Give examples of primary sources

diaries, interviews, news footage, photographs, autobiography

3

Define 'secondary source'

works that analyse/interpret an event/phenomenon usually using a primary source

4

Give examples of secondary sources

research studies, biographies, book reviews, textbooks

5

Define 'research'

use of various qualitative and quantitative techniques of investigation to obtain desired information on a given subject.

6

Name the 4 characteristics of the research process

  1. Structured/systematic
  2. Has a statement of expectation
  3. Subjected to rules
  4. Replicable
7

Define 'quantitative research'

research which takes an objective approach to seek precise information in numerical form.

8

Define 'qualitative research'

research which takes a subjective approach to seek in-depth information in narrative form.

9

What questions do quantitative research ask?

"how much" or "how many"

10

What questions do qualitative research ask?

"how" or "why"

11

Uses of qualitative research

-to gain understanding of underlying reasons

-to gather opinions

-to provide insight into a problem

-uncover trends in thought/opinion

12

Uses of quantitative research

-to support or reject a theory

-establishes general laws of behaviour

-examines relationship between variables

-provides measurable data in numerical form

13

Examples of quantitative research methods

scientific experiments, controlled observations, surveys, polls, content analysis (counting no. of occurrences of a phenomenon in a media source)

14

Examples of qualitative research methods

interviews, focus groups, group discussion, diary accounts

15

Advantages of qualitative research

  • very useful in conducting social/behavourial studies
  • smaller sample sizes are used, cutting down on costs
  • subjects can be examined in great detail
16

Disadvantages of qualitative research

  • data gathered is highly subjective
  • difficult to assess accuracy of data
  • can be time-consuming to read through all data
  • researcher may be biased which would affect results
17

Advantages of quantitative research

  • easily measurable
  • results can be depicted using charts/graphs
  • easy to make predictions and identify patterns
  • high level of reliability
18

Disadvantages of quantitative research

  • cannot be used to explain social phenomena because it cannot account for non-numerical information such as emotions
  • doesn't provide insight into why things happen
  • large sample sizes are used so collecting info. may be time-consuming
19

Examples of quantitative data

  1. temperature
  2. height
  3. weight
  4. test scores
20

Examples of qualitative data

  1. softness of skin
  2. textures
  3. tastes
  4. beauty
21

Define 'survey'

research method used for collecting information from a pre-defined group of respondents to gain insights on a topic of interest.

22

List types of surveys

  1. Face to face
  2. Telephone
  3. Email
  4. Online
  5. Computer-Assisted
23

Define participant observation

researchers study people in their natural environment by joining in on their daily activities

24

List and explain the types of participant observation

1. Overt: subjects know they're being studied

2. Covert: subjects don't know they're being studied. researcher keeps identity a secret.

25

Explain empirical research

-based on observation

-measured

-derives knowledge from actual experiences rather than theories or beliefs.

26

Explain scholarly research

eg. peer-reviewed journal articles

-written by scholars/professionals in the field

-shows scholars/professional's research results

27

Define 'observation'

the systematic noting and recording of events, behaviours, and artefacts (objects) in the social setting chosen for study.

28

Uses of observation

- to learn about sensitive information others dont want to speak of

-provides contextual information needed to frame the evaluation of data

29

Types of observation

1. participant

2. Laboratory

3. Naturalistic

30

What is 'observer's paradox'?

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