Define 'primary source'
original, first-hand accounts of an event or raw data from the original research
Give examples of primary sources
diaries, interviews, news footage, photographs, autobiography
Define 'secondary source'
works that analyse/interpret an event/phenomenon usually using a primary source
Give examples of secondary sources
research studies, biographies, book reviews, textbooks
use of various qualitative and quantitative techniques of investigation to obtain desired information on a given subject.
Name the 4 characteristics of the research process
- Has a statement of expectation
- Subjected to rules
Define 'quantitative research'
research which takes an objective approach to seek precise information in numerical form.
Define 'qualitative research'
research which takes a subjective approach to seek in-depth information in narrative form.
What questions do quantitative research ask?
"how much" or "how many"
What questions do qualitative research ask?
"how" or "why"
Uses of qualitative research
-to gain understanding of underlying reasons
-to gather opinions
-to provide insight into a problem
-uncover trends in thought/opinion
Uses of quantitative research
-to support or reject a theory
-establishes general laws of behaviour
-examines relationship between variables
-provides measurable data in numerical form
Examples of quantitative research methods
scientific experiments, controlled observations, surveys, polls, content analysis (counting no. of occurrences of a phenomenon in a media source)
Examples of qualitative research methods
interviews, focus groups, group discussion, diary accounts
Advantages of qualitative research
- very useful in conducting social/behavourial studies
- smaller sample sizes are used, cutting down on costs
- subjects can be examined in great detail
Disadvantages of qualitative research
- data gathered is highly subjective
- difficult to assess accuracy of data
- can be time-consuming to read through all data
- researcher may be biased which would affect results
Advantages of quantitative research
- easily measurable
- results can be depicted using charts/graphs
- easy to make predictions and identify patterns
- high level of reliability
Disadvantages of quantitative research
- cannot be used to explain social phenomena because it cannot account for non-numerical information such as emotions
- doesn't provide insight into why things happen
- large sample sizes are used so collecting info. may be time-consuming
Examples of quantitative data
- test scores
Examples of qualitative data
- softness of skin
research method used for collecting information from a pre-defined group of respondents to gain insights on a topic of interest.
List types of surveys
- Face to face
Define participant observation
researchers study people in their natural environment by joining in on their daily activities
List and explain the types of participant observation
1. Overt: subjects know they're being studied
2. Covert: subjects don't know they're being studied. researcher keeps identity a secret.
Explain empirical research
-based on observation
-derives knowledge from actual experiences rather than theories or beliefs.
Explain scholarly research
eg. peer-reviewed journal articles
-written by scholars/professionals in the field
-shows scholars/professional's research results
the systematic noting and recording of events, behaviours, and artefacts (objects) in the social setting chosen for study.
Uses of observation
- to learn about sensitive information others dont want to speak of
-provides contextual information needed to frame the evaluation of data
Types of observation
What is 'observer's paradox'?