Loyola Biology 111 Fungi

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1

Saprotrophs

an organism that feeds on or nourishes from decaying organic matter

2

zygosporangium

consists of a diploid zygote surrounded by a thick protective wall, which forms during sexual reproduction

3

rhizopus

the black mold on bread

4

zygomycota

bread molds

5

meiosis

what cell division process produces spores during asexual reproduction?

6

chitin

what fungal cell walls are made up of

7

mycelium

a mass of hyphae

8

hyphae

each branching filament that makes up the mycelium of a fungus

9

mutualistic symbiotic association

some benefit to both the fungus and the host

10

parasite

an organism that lives on another and benefits by deriving nutrients at the hosts expense

11

gametangia

the tips of the hyphae swell to form ______

12

plasmogamy

when the cytoplasm of the two gametangia merges to form a zygosporangium

13

heterokaryotic

the resulting zygosporangium contains many separate haploid nuclei and is termed _____________

14

karyogamy

the fusion of pairs of nuclei will occur resulting in many diploid cells.

15

sporangiophore

the first structure to emerge from a zygosporangium is a specialized hyphal strand called _________ bearing a sporangium

16

conidiophores

in the majority of sac fungi, asexual reproduction occurs at the end of specialized hyphae called _________-.

17

spores can disperse and germinate into new hyphae

what is an advantage of a sporangiophore that grows upwards?

18

dikaryotic

the cytoplasm of two haploid mating hyphae strands fuses, but the haploid nuclei remain separate (plasmogamy). The result is a ________ (two nucleotide) reproductive hypha.

19

ascocarp

the fruiting family, or _________, forms a form of an intertwined collection of both dikaryotic and haploid hypha

20

asci

the dikaryotic hyphae ultimately produce sexual spores within structures called ____________.

21

this group is distinguished by sexual spores that develop on projections from microscopic cells called _________

basidia

22

Ectomycorrhizae

enmesh around the outer cortex of the root and generally belong to either the Basidiomycota or Ascomycota

23

lichens live with green algae, so they need to live alongside algae

Why are lichens often the first organisms to colonize bare, rocky areas?

24

Crustose Lichens

have flat, encrusting bodies

25

Foliose lichens

have leafy bodies

26

Fructose lichens

appear like mini branching shrubs